groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism (4 primary tissue types: epithelium, connective tissues, nervous tissue, and muscle)
an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
The structure that attaches most epithelia to underlying tissue; consists of carbohydrates and proteins secreted by the epithelia and the underlying connective tissue.
An epithelium consisting of a single layer of cells that all touch the basal lamina.
An epithelium consisting of more than one layer of cells in which some but not all cells touch the basal lamina.
Found at interfaces involved in selective diffusion, absorption and or secretion. They provide little resistance to mechanical abrasion.
simple squamous epithelium
A single layer of thin, flat cells. It is often found where diffusion or filtration take place (alveoli in lungs, kidneys). It also covers organs in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities.
serous membranes (serosae)
slick membranes that line the ventral body cavity and cover the organs in that cavity
simple cuboidal epithelium
A single layer of cube-like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion. They are found in mitochondria and kidneys. They often have cilia and microvilli on the surface., A single layer of cube-like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion. They are found in mitochondria and kidneys. They often have cilia and microvilli on the surface.
simple colmnar epithelium
made up of a single layer of tall cells that fit closely together
(pseudostratified) columnar epithelium
single layer of cells of differing heights, nuclei look like at different levels. Secretion of mucus and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
stratified squamous epithelium
thick membrane with several cell layers, surface cells can contain keratin. protects underlying tissues in areas that can be rubbed or injured
stratified cuboidal epithelium
two or more layers of cells with the surface cells square or round
stratified columnar epithelium
More than one layer of epithelial cells, where only the surface cells are columnar in shape. It is only found in the mammary gland ducts, the larynx, and a portion of the male urethra. It functions in secretion, protection, and some absorption.
similar to stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal epithelium. Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar. Surface cells are dome-shaped depending on amount of organ stretch. Stretches and permits distension of bladder
any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream
the release of biosynthesized substances
Is what produces and relase hormones that speed up/slow down or turn on/off a organ or system, this is released through the bloodstream, the bodies "slow" chemical communication by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream
glands whose secretions pass into a system of ducts that lead ultimately to the exterior of the body.
tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
osseous tissue; composed of bone cells sitting in cavities called lacunae and surrounded by a very hard matrix of collagen fibers; has the ability to protect and support other body organs
Small cavities in the bone or cartilage that hold individual bones or cartilage cells.
less hard and more flexible than bone; found in few places of the body (nose, ears)
has abundant collagen fibers hiden by a rubbery matrix with a glassy, white-blue apperance; it forms the supporting structures of the larynx, attatches the breastbone to the ribs, and covers the ends of the bones where they form joints
forms cushion-like discs between the vertebrae of the spinal column
found where a structure of elasticity is required (supports the external ear)
defense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue)
forms strong, rope-like structures such as tendons and ligaments; makes up lower layers of the skin
attatch skeletal muscles to bone
connect bones at joints
loose connective tissue
A loosely organized, easily distorted connective tissue that contains several fiber types, a varied population of cells, and a viscous ground substance. Also the packing materials of the body. Fill spaces between organs, cushion and stabilize specialized cells and support epithelia. Surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store lipids, provide route for the diffustion of materials
fibrous connective tissue with the fibers arranged in a mesh or net
underlies all mucous membranes
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
reticular connective tissue
Loose connective tissue in which reticular fibres predominate, forming the stroma of lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, and the liver.
functions as transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system, carrying nutrients, wastess, respiratory gasses, and many other substances throughout the body
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
the muscle tissue of the heart
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, bladder, uterus, and blood vessels
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
insulate, support, and protect the delicate neirons, make up the structures of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves)
teh replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
involve the repair by defense connective tissue (scar tissue)
an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
abnormal increase in number of cells
decrease in size