the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
business organization that raised money by selling investors stocks, or shares, in the company.
economic theory stating that there is an fixed amount of wealth in the world and that in order to receive a lager share, one country has to take some wealth away from another county.
import taxes in foreign goods
government grants of money
system of government in which the ruler determines policy without consulting either the people or their representatives (kings and queens)
divine right of king
belief that God ordained certain individuals to govern (made by Louis XIV, also made Versailles)
A government that has a monarch who serves as the symbolic head of state, and has little power
gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment.
belief that truth can be arrived at solely by reason, or logical thinking.
government principle based on just laws and on a government created by and subject to the will of the people
consists of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church and constituted less than 1 percent of the French population. Did not have to pay tax.
consists of the nobility and represents less than 2 percent of the French population. Paid few taxes and had special privileges. Held highest positions in the government and army.
consists of the rest of the population of France, 97%, most of this estate was poor and had no voice in making or changing laws
Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite
french ideas of revolution, freedom, liberty, and equality
people who do not want to change existing conditions (right wing people, tradition)
people who want to institute far-reaching changes (intense, extreme, side of the spectrum)
seizure of power by force (Napoleon used this)
people who gave no extreme views, who may side with either conservatives, liberals or radicals depending at the issues at hand
Balance of Power
principle of maintaing equilibrium in international politics
political movement extending the principles of the American and French Revolutions, stressing individual rights and the rule of law rather than the rule of a monarch.
1600s: english farmers enclosed common lands into individuals holdings. Was more efficient fo large-scale farming. Increased food production and price of food.
Factors of production
basic resources necessary for industrialization such as land, capital, and labor
production of goods in a factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers. (Also think about the effect on workers)
economic system in which private individuals rather than the government control the factos of production
Division of Labor
characteristic of civilizations in which different people perform different jobs (in the factory system)
system of manufacturing large number of identical items
business organization in which individuals buy shares of stock, elect directors to decide policies and hire managers, and receive money according to the number of shares they own
complete control of the production or sale of a good or service by a single firm
belief that government should not interfere with the operations of business
process of negations between union members and management
political and economic system in which the government owns the means of production
economic and political system in which the government owns almost all the means of production and controls economic planning; authoritarian socialism
love of one's country rather than love of one's native region