History exam review

134 terms by anish7singhal 

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this has all the stuff on the packet

seeing things

take off your blinders. appreciate others point of view

point of view

this is how a person sees something based on WHO he is. education, family, nationality, experiences, religion, and a host of other things can contribute to this.

frame of reference

how a person sees events based on WHERE he is. a man on the dock has a different recollection of a ship leaving than does a man on the ship

themes

things that motivated individuals to act throughout history. must show specific person doing a specific action

land

includes water and natural resources

power

three sources...votes, force, wealth in the US only votes and wealth are legit

religion

deals with morality and immortality

morality

see what's right or wrong

immortality

The quality of the spiritual human soul whereby it survives the death of the body

exploration

to travel to little known or unknown places to learn about them

the Age of Sail

that period of time when sailing ships were the driving mover of the development of society

advances

that which moves the world forward

barriers to carriers

oceans became highways in the Age of Sail

Christopher Columbus

genoese sailor, working for spain, he discovered the New World in 1492

Prince Henry the Navigator

a portuguese prince who started a school for navigation. he brought together the finest sailors, ship builders, navigators, chart makers, etc

Portugal

brazil

spain

western SA, central america, NA, caribbean coast, florida

england

eastern coast

france

canada, LT

holland

NY

Sweden

new jersey

Aztec

mexico

maya

Guatemala, Yucatan Peninsula,

culture areas

geographic areas where humans live a similar life style (plains, SW, eastern woodland)

relations with france

french men married indians and lived among tribes. their children were raised with loyalty more for the tribal leaders than for the French king

relations with great britain

the british kept separate from the indians and suffered through many wars and rebellions because of this. only pennsylvania

clash of cultures

when 2 cultures come together things will change for each. in the case of conquest, the conquered must learn the way of the conquerers.

Jamestown

1607-the first permanent English in N America

John Smith

the first true leader in English N America. his rule was those who don't work, don't eat. this set the tone for the Land of Opportunity

Plymouth

1620-first english settlement started for religious reasons

Pilgrims

separatists who had left the Church of England and were being persecuted by James I. they chose to come to the New World to avoid more trouble.

The Mayflower

the ship that the Pilgrims rode to the New World

the mayflower compact

an agreement by those on the Mayflower to make and obey laws for their colony; this was the first self-rule by American colonists

religion in New England

prime motivator for the region

Puritanism

a sect within the Church of England that wanted to see a less fancy, more devout church

Roger Williams

Puritan dissenter who was banished for his radical ideas-Indians pay for their land; 2. church and state should be separate; 3. keep the government out of an individual's religious decisions. he ran off to found Providence, later found Rhode Island

Salem Witch Trials

puritan judges executed a number of people and animals in order to purge the settlement of Salem of witches. When a particularly devout woman was accused of witchcraft, people realized that the trials had run out of control and that innocents had been executed. this was another black mark agains the puritan ministers

the great migration

Jonathon winthrop led 20,00 puritans across to the New World between 1630 and 1640 to avoid persecution in their native England

colonization

to found or establish settlements in order to exert control over a geographic area

types of colonies

royal, self-governing, proprietary, corporate, trusteeship

13 colonies

Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, N. Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia

Land of Opportunity

in the New World a person's worth and position in society were not determined by birthright

apprentice

a boy who, by contract, was taught a trade by a master craftsmen in exchange for food, shelter, and clothing.

indentured servant

a european, already skilled, who contracts to work a certain number of years in exchange for the cost of a voyage to America

slave

a person who is owned by another and all their labor belongs to their master

rights

things that cannot be taken away, except through due process of law

DR of Kings

the European political philosophy that teaches God gave all power to a single person, the king, who may give or take any rights as he sees fit

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property and governments are created by the consent of the people in order to protect these rights

rights versus privileges

a right can't be taken away except through due process of law. a privilege requires permission from another

France v. Great Britain

after holland and sweden left, spain was busy with her empire and russia was far away, so the fight was between france and GB

4 wars

between spain and france

french and indian war/7 years war

was decisive

prelude to revolution

with the french threat removed, the british gov decided that the time was right to micromanage their american empire. the british colonists had, however, been governing themselves since early 1600s

proclamation line of 1763

in order to avoid costly indian wars, the british government decided that colonists couldn't locate west of the top of the Appalachian Mtns.

Stamp Act

in order to raise money to pay the war debt for the four wars agains France, the British levied a tax on American colonists only. This first put a tax on all legal documents

Taxation without representation is tyranny

without the ability to elect representatives to parliament, the British colonists took up this slogan to express their claim that unless they had a say in government, the government would have no right to levy taxes on them

Reaction is a boycott

the british gov. had promised wealth through trade to merchants who had paid additional taxes during the F & 1 war. this produced the opposite effect and those merchants, who could vote, saw to it that the Stamp Act was repealed

Stamp Act Congress

this was the first time the colonists worked together

townshend acts

this internal tax was a second attempt to tax the colonists alone

external v internal tax

external are added on to the final cost of an item. internal is already in the final cost of the product

Boston Massacre

when some british soldiers panicked and killed 5 colonists, sam adams and paul revere turned it into a propaganda victory

boston tea party

dressed as indians, the sons of liberty threw tea into the boston harbor, rather than let it land and the tax be paid

coercive acts

the british set of laws designed to punish the colonists for the boston tea party. Quebec Act, Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act, Boston Port Act, and Massachusetts Government Act

too much punishment

instead of alienating the radicals in Boston, these acts were so severe that they brought the other colonies in on the side of Boston

Sam Adams

the great agitator of the revolution, he started committees of correspondence and the songs of liberty

patrick henry

the great orator, "GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!"

thomas paine

pamphleteer, "common sense" and "the crisis"

propaganda

Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.

first continental congress

the colonists came together to have rebellious representatives at a central location

first continental congress

the colonists came together to have rebellious representatives at a central location

second continental congress

more radical than the FCC it ran the Revolution

the shot heard around the world

the first shot of the revolution, fired on Leington Green. First time a colony had risen against a mother country and issued in the Age of Revolution

The revolutionary war

to gain independence from G.B. France was a great ally

george washington

1st pres. commander of continental army, model of civic virtue who gave up throne of US

Cornwallis caught at Yorktown

the final battle of the revolution, cornwallis was surrounded by 2 american and 1 french army. he was forced to surrender

treaty of paris 1783

ended AR

independence

we became a separate country

articles of confederation

first gov of US

weak gov

it couldnt solve a nation's problems

Northwest ordinance

only good law passed during the AOC period, it provided a way for new and equal states to be made.

Constitution of US

our present system of gov. provided for a constitutional republic

philadelphia convention

originally called to fix AOC, this is where Constitution was written

James Madison's plan

3 branches/system of checks and balances

executive

to enforce laws

legislative

write laws

judicial

interpret laws

senate

equal number/2 per state

HOR

by population at least one per state

political parties

citizens who band together based on common ideas/ GW didn't want these

Democratic-Republican

Thomas Jefferson
Feared central government
democratic / faith in common man

federalists

alexander hamilton / John Adams
strong central government
aristocratic

census

physical count of the people of the US taken every 10 years in order to provide for the election of representatives

Louisiana Purchase

bought from France by Thomas Jefferson, it doubled the size of US

Lewis & Clark

send by TJ to record the flora and fauna of the newly purchased area

industrialization

more technologically advanced, productive manufacturing

power loom

sam slater brought the secret of making sloth faster to the US

cotton gin

eli whitney figured a way to clean cotton accidentally making slavery profitable again

steam engine

robert fulton designed a machine that could pull the weight of all manufactured goods

transition from farm economy

people started moving into cities for employment

canals

man made waterways that connect 2 bodies of water

improved roads

plank, macadams

Missouri Compromise

restricted growth of slavery in LT

Frederick Douglass

led many slaves up to the north

characteristics of money

portable, generally accepted, divisible, stores value, measures value

definition of money

anything generally accepter in exchange for goods or services, or in payment of debt

Jackson v the Bank

jackson's opponents convinced the 2nd bank of US to apply 4 years early for a 20 year extension on its charter, so that it could be used as a campaign issue. when jackson won he killed off the bank early by removing all gov. money

pet banks

these were the frontier banks in the S and W where AJ deposited the money he had taken out of the Bank of the US. His political supporters were from those areas and he wanted them to benefit.

Inflation

too much money chasing too few goods, money is devalued and prices rise

specie

gold/silver especially coin

Latter Day Saints

new American religion

Mormons

members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Joseph Smith

in the early 1800s in NY he had a vision of God leading him to a set of golden tablets upon which was written the Book of Mormon, another book of the Bible. Jesus supposedly visited the New World. Smith later went on to evoke polygamy and other unpopular tenets. He was killed in eastern IL, along with his brother Hyrum

Brigham Young

2nd leader of Mormon Church, he led thousands to their new home in the basin of great salt lake in what is now Utah

texas

originally spanish, then part of Mexico

Texas war for Independence

not a US war, this is Mexicans v Texans

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

dictator of Mexico on occasions, he was a great organizer but poor general

sam houston

leader of Texans and first president of the republic of texas

Jim bowie/davey crockett

texan heroes of the alamo

the alamo/goliad/San Jacinto

3 big battles of war

Mexican-American War

us v Mexico in border dispute war

disputed boundary

between Nueces river and Rio grande

training for the generals on Civil war

Grant Lee Jackson Sherman etc

Winfield Scott/Z. Taylor

2 leading US generals, Taylor ahd ambition and was ordered to hold. Scott took Mexico City.

Treaty gives US southwestern US

treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Gadsen Purchase

several years later, the us bought another silver of northern mexico completing the present boundary of us

education of women

from care of the home to female education...Mary Lyon and Sarah Pierce

life in the mills

from great conditions to wage slaves because of competition cost-cutting

compromise of 1850

tried to avoid conflict through diplomacy

Kansas-Nebraska Bill

popular sovereignty used to get Stephen Douglass votes

Bleeding Kansas

civil war between Free-Soldiers and Border Ruffians, introduces John Brown

Senator Sumner attacked

beaten by Rep. whose uncle had been verbally attacked

Dred Scott Decision

slave brought to free area, supreme court decision ended the idea of free states

Civil War

in general terms

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