A change in the sequence of DNA nucleotide bases can cause a ?
How are sex-linked traits inherited?
the mother, X chromosome
change in a kind of organism over time
How do you determine what species is closer to humans?
the species that has the less amount of number of amino acids
Ex. streptococcus, eschericha coli
Ex. amoeba, paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp
Ex. mushrooms, yeasts
Ex. mosses, ferns, flowering plants
Ex. sponges, worms, insects, fishes, and mammals
What 2 parts of taxonomy is used to name an organism? Which part is the first and then last name?
Genus and Species
formation of new species
What are viruses made of?
nucleic acid, protein, and lipids
Why aren't viruses considered living?
they are parasites they depend on a living organism to live
How are viruses and living organisms similar?
they both can reproduce, regulate gene expression, and can evolve
Which part of the virus attaches to the host?
What happens in a lytic viral infection to host cells?
the host cell bursts
List some lytic viral diseases.
scarlet fever, rabbies
What is the difference in a lysogenic viral infection?
the host cell makes copies of the virus indefinetly
List some lysogenic viral infections.
herpes and HIV/AIDS
virus that contains RNA as its genetic info
What part of the body does HIV affect?
immune system- the T cells
What type of treatment works only on bacterial diseases?
What are some symptoms of bacterial infection?
strep throat, sinus infections, headaches, dehydration, ...
rod-shaped bacteria is called?
spherical- shaped bacterial is called?
helical-shaped bacteria are called?
bacteria that grows in chains?
bacteria that grows in clusters?
What happens in transpiration (in plants)?
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
What is the cuticle on the leaf of a plant and what does it do?
epidermis, it forms a boundary between the plant and the external environment
What is the function of a leaf in a plant?
it contains vascular tissue
What are the stoma in a leaf? What occurs there?
opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
What advantage do taproots have over fibrous roots?
they are longer and thicker
How do aquatic animals exchange gases?
What is an open circulatory system? List animals that have one.
system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels. arthropods and mollusks
What is a closed circulatory system? List animals that have one.
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels. annelids, and some mollusks
How do flatworms and simple invertebrates take in oxygen and rid themselves of waste?
they have a mouth, eliminate waste through a alimentary canal
Which group of animals has a backbone?
What is the best condition for the exchange of gases in skin, gills, or lungs?
in a terrestrial environment
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
controls growth, development, and metabolism; maintains homeostasis
What make up the endocrine system?
ovaries, testes, pancreas, adrenals...
serves as a barrier against infection and injury; helps to regulate body temp.; provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun
What makes up the integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, sweat, and oil gland
brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; helps to regulate body temp.
What makes up the circulatory system?
heart, blood vessels, and blood
eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis
Where is urine produced, and what is the path it takes to be released from the body?
kidneys; through the ureters, urinary bladders, and out the urethra
What do muscles do?
produce voluntary movement
recognizes and coordinates the body's response to change in its internal and external environments
What makes up the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body
What makes up the respiratory system?
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs
What is commensalism? List example
symbiotic relationship when one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. ex. bird living in a tree (birds can live, tree does nothing)
What is mutualism? List example.
both organisms are benefited. ex. a bee pollinating a flower ( bee can make honey, flower can reproduce)
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
What is the original source of energy in most ecosystems?
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
What are primary consumers? What are they also called?
an organism that gets its energy from producers; herbivore
What are secondary consumers? What are they also called?
animals that eat other animals; omnivore
What are tertiary consumers?
an animal that feeds on secondary consumers in a food chain
How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next in an ecological pyramid?
Which part of the ecological pyramid has the greatest amount of energy?
the lowest level
full of range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions