Mechanical systems

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Unit 4 Vocabulary

lever

a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum

Fulcrum

the pivot about which a lever turns

Effort Force

the force applied to a machine when a machine is used to do work.

Load

a quantity that can be processed or transported at one time

Effort Arm

the part of a lever on which an effort force is applied

Load Arm

distance between the load force and fulcrum

Class 2 Lever

A lever in which the load is between the fulcrum and the effort.

Class 3 Lever

A lever in which the effort is between the fulcrum and the load

Joules

Unit of Energy

Inclined Plane

a simple machine for elevating objects

Input Work

the work done on a machine as the input force acts through the input distance

Output Work

the work done by a machine as the output force acts through the output distance

Mechanical Advantage

the ratio of the force exerted by a machine to the force applied to it

Speed

distance traveled per unit time

Ergonomics

The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

Winch

lifting device consisting of a horizontal cylinder turned by a crank on which a cable or rope winds

Radius

the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere

Wheel and Axle

hoist so arranged that a rope unwinding from a wheel is wound onto a cylindrical drum or shaft coaxial with the wheel

Gear

a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion

Gear Train

A group of 2 or more gears

Driving Gear

The gear that is providing force to turn the other one. Often, this gear is attached directly to the motor axle.

Driven Gear

The gear that is receiving the force to produce motion.

Sprocket

tooth on the rim of gear wheel

Speed Ratio

The relationship between the speed of rotations of a smaller gear and a larger gear, can be calculated by dividing the number of driver gear teeth by the number of follower gear teeth.

Pulley

a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope

Fixed Pulley

A pulley attached in position above a load to be lifted.

Moveable Pulley

attached to the object being lifted and it decreases the amount of force needed to lift a load

Block and Tackle

pulley blocks with associated rope or cable

Compound Pulley

Two or more pulleys working together

Kinetic Energy

the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion

Potential Energy

the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position

Transmission

the act of sending a message

Efficiency

the ratio of the output to the input of any system

Force

force into or from an action or state, either physically or metaphorically

Area

a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function

Pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

Pascals Law

a gas or liquid exerts an equal force in all directions in a closed container

Hydraulic Lift

Mechanical system that raises heavy objects.

Closed System

system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels

Hydraulic Systems

use the force of a liquid in a confined space, apply two essential characteristic of fluids - their in compressibility and their ability to transmit pressure

Pneumatic Systems

Transportation system used in many health care facilities for specimens and paper-based documentation.

Valve

control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid

Pump

a mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

Subsystem

a system that is part of some larger system

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