They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
governments that enforced strict obedience to authorities and often involved sacrificing personal freedoms
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Consent of the Governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
by James Madison, says how to guard against factions, special interest groups, by extending the sphere and making sure nobody gets too much power
Hamilton explained why strong strong government is necessary : "If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angles were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary."
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Formal Amendment Process
Article V; the (very difficult) process of adding or deleting words to the constitution (27 times since 1788); propose by 2/3 vote of Congress or Constitutional Convention (never used); ratify by 3/4 vote of state legislators or state convention (only used once)
The Great Compromise
A state's representation in the House of Representation would be based on population; Two senators for each state; all bills would originate in the house; direct taxes on states were to be assessed according to population
Informal Amendment Clause
Legislature: Pass laws
Executive: negotiate executive agreements with other countries
Judiciary: Judicial Review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
a political theory holding that in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of the people want.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Second Treatise on Government
a work written by John Locke before the Glorious Revolution that was read as justification for it. Locke described the relationship of a king and his people as a bilateral contract. If the king broke the contract, the people, by whom Locke meant the privileged and the powerful, had the right to depose him. The Glorious Revolution established a framework of government by and for the governemed that seemed to bear ou the arguments of this book
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
the "Commerce Clause"
This clause states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with the Indian tribes.
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
all state government gives power to national governemtn. Have a weak national government.
Block grants become more restricted by rules due to conditions added later by Congress; the tendency for grants to acquire mandates where none had existed previously
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
government systems that divide the powers between the national government and state or provincial governments
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
important tools for influencing policy at the state and local level. Congress authorizes grants, establishes rules for how grants may be used, and decides how much control the states have over federal funds. Two types of grants
a person who interprets the constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking.
an authoritative command, formal order, authorization; to issue such an order
Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
The Doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federalm law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
powers given to the state government alone
federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national government today are these.