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chemistry

OH⁻

Hydroxide ion

HCO₃⁻

Hydrogencarbonate ion

CO₃²⁻

Carbonate ion

SO₄²⁻

Sulfate ion

SO₃²⁻

Sulfite ion

NO₃⁻

Nitrate ion

NO₂⁻

Nitrite ion

NH₄⁺

Ammonium ion

MnO₄⁻

Permanganate ion

CrO₄²⁻

Chromate ion

Cr₂O₇²⁻

Dichromate ion

S₂O₃²⁻

Thiosulfate ion

PO₄³⁻

Phosphate ion

(Test for) chloride ions

Add a few drops of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3). A white precipitate is formed which is soluble in dilute ammonia solution

(Test for) sulfate ions

Add a few drops of barium chloride solution (BaCl2). A white precipitate is formed which is insoluble in dilute HCl.

(Test for) sulfite ions

Add a few drops of barium chloride solution (BaCl2). A white precipitate is formed which dissolves in dilute HCl.

(Test for) carbonate ions

Add dilute HCl. Fizzing is observed as carbon dioxide is released. Add magnesium sulfate solution. A white precipitate is formed.

(Test for) hydrogencarbonate ions

Add dilute HCl. Fizzing is observed as carbon dioxide is released. Add magnesium sulfate solution. No precipitate is formed (it is soluble in water).

(Test for) nitrate ions

Brown Ring Test: Add iron (II) sulfate solution then add some concentrated sulfuric acid down the inside of the test tube. A brown ring is formed at the junction of the two layers

(Test for) phosphate ions

Add some ammonium molybdate solution then add five drops of concentrated nitric acid. Warm the solution. A yellow precipitate is formed.

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