the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
suggests how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. - It's not a big deal. He's totally fine... but he's actually dying inside
feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, smoking and knowing it's bad for you... lessen the dissonance by trying to make it sound okay
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. trying to follow the crowd
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. - people get less and less able to see the middle as they hang out with people who think like they do
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
"us"—people with whom one shares a common identity.
the tendency to favor one's own group
"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. You're prejudiced because it gives you someone to blame
the tendency of people to believe the world is fair and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Overfishing example
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. - if you see something over and over again you start liking it
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
when you like both of the options
pros and cons of each option
faced with two bad options.