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Bourgeoisie

In Karl Marx's analysis, those who own and control the means of production in capitalist societies

Capital

Pierce Bourdieu's term for the kinds of resources that individuals have in varying social classes and factions within classes

Caste System

stratification system with clearly marked class divisions, in which people are born and have little chance for mobility to a different class

Charismatic Leader

Max Weber's term for those who, by virtue of their personal qualities, can mobilize subordinates in a system of inequality to engage in conflict with superordinates

Classes

-Max Weber: those who share a common set of life chances and opportunities in markets
-Karl Marx: divisions in a society reflecting ownership of the means of production
-General: differences among subpopulations by virtue of their respective share of valued resources

Class Faction

Existence within each social class of a dominant, intermediate, and dominated sector or faction. Members of similar factions in different social classes often have more in common with each other than with members of their own class

Conflict of Interest

Karl Marx: basic tension and incompatibility of goals between those who control resources and those who do not

Cultural Capital

Amount of education, knowledge, taste, skills, manners, and linguistic styles possessed by individuals

Economic Capital

amount of money from productive and economic activities that individual possess

Income Distribution

percentage of total income held by different percentages of the population, usually calculated in terms of fifths

Open-Class System

stratification system with less clearly demarcated classes and with opportunities for mobility from class to class

Parties

Max Weber: the organization of power as a distinct basis for inequality and stratification of individuals who bear varying affiliations and access to organizations holding or seeking power

Proletariat

Karl Marx: those who do not own the means of production in capitalist society and who must, therefore, work for those who do

Social Capital

nature and extensiveness of networks and social relations possessed by individuals

Status Groups

Max Weber: subsets of individuals who share similar lifestyles; who form ties because of shared culture, tastes, and outlooks; and who, by virtue of these, can command a certain honor and prestige

Stratification

structures revolving around the unequal distribution of valued resources to the members of a society and the distinctive categories thereby created by virtue of the shares of resources held by different subpopulations in a society

Symbolic Capital

symbols or ideologies that individuals can mobilize to legitimate their possession on economic, social, and cultural capital

Wealth Distribution

Percentage of total wealth held by different percentages of the population, usually calculated in fifths

Discrimination

differential treatment of others, especially those of an ethnic group or a gender category; so that they receive less valued resources

Ethnic Stratification

situation where members of particular ethnic groups are disproportionately over- and under-represented in particular social classes

Ethnicity

those behavioral, cultural, and organizational characteristics that distinguish subpopulations in a society

Genocide

systematic killing of larger numbers of members of an ethnic subpopulation

Institutionalized Discrimination

patterns of systematic discrimination against an ethnic subpopulation that are legitimated by cultural symbols, that are carried out informally and formally, and that are built into the structures of a society

Prejudice

beliefs about the undesirable qualities of others, especially those in an ethnic group

Race

perceived biological distinctiveness for categories of individuals

Gender/Gender DIfferentiation

process of culturally defining the appropriate positions, roles, and demeanor for men and women

Gender Stratification

situation where the positions typically occupied by men and women habitually receive different levels of valued resources

Sex/Sexual Differentiation

Biological differences between men and women

stratification

structures revolving around the unequal distribution of valued resources to the members of a society, leading to the creation or accentuation of distinctive categories whose members share similar kinds and levels of resources

capital

implements of economic production and the money used to purchase these implements

Commodification

process whereby any object, person, or symbol can be converted into a good that can be bought and sold in a market

Institution of Economy

Organization of technology, capital, and labor into structures for the purpose of gathering natural resources, producing goods and services, and distributing these goods and services to members of a society

Entrepreneurship

organizational forms and capacities that coordinate technology, capital, and labor

Human Capital

another way to designate labor as an element of the economy

Hyperdifferentiation

increasing specialization of all activities into more narrow sets of activities

Hyperrationalization

increasing emphasis on efficiency speed, and cost-benefit concerns

Industrialization

process of harnessing fossil fuels to machines attended by labor for the purpose of gathering resources, producing goods, and distributing commodities

labor

person perfoming economic actibites

Multinational Corporation

company charted for business in one country that does business in other countries

Oligopoly

domination of market sector by a few dominant companies

Post-Industrialization

change from an industrial economy where a majority of the work force is employed in manufacturing of hard goods and commodities to one where the majority of the work force is employed in providing services

Primary Sector

that portion of the economy involved in gathering resources from the environment

Secondary Sector

that portion of the economy devoted to the conversion of raw materials into goods and products (production)

Technology

systems of symbols organized into knowledge about how to manipulate the environment

Tertiary Sector

that portion of the economy involved in providing services

Administrative Base of Power

use of administrative structures to regulate and control members of a population

Coercive Base of Power

use of physical force in social relations

Centralization

concentration of power in the hands of fewer and fewer individuals and agencies in government

Democracy

reliance upon free elections to place incumbents in leadership positions of government

Leaders

those who can use power to make binding decisions on a population and who, as a result, direct societal activities

Material Incentive Base of Power

use of incentives by political leaders to encourage and discourage various lines of conduct among members of a population

Pluralism

argument that decision making in government is influenced by competing interest groups

Power

capacity to direct the behaviors of others

Bases of Power

varying ways that power can be mobilized to direct the behavior of others. 4 types: coercive, administrative, symbolic, and material incentive - all of which are mobilized to varying degrees to exert power

Power Elite

existence of a small group of corporate leaders and wealthy individuals who, in conjunction with key members of the military and the legislative branch of government, disproportionately influence the direction of political decisions

Symbolic Base of POwer

use of symbol systems, such as ideologies, laws, religious dogmas, accounts of history, and other ideas to legitimate the power of leaders to direct behaviors among members of a society

Totalitarianism

governmental from that relies on the extensive use of coercion and the constant monitoring by administrative structures to control members of a population

Avunculocal Rule

residence rule specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the male's mother's brother (uncle on mother's side)

Bilateral Descent

rule of descent specifying that the male's and female's side of the family and kin network will be given equal importance

Clan

kinship structure created when lineages are linked together by a descent rule

Descent Rules

norms specifying whether the male's or female's side of the family and kin network are more important in terms of authority and property

Endogamy

rule specifying that individuals must marry within another kin group or community

Exogamy

rule specifying that individuals must marry outside a kin group or community

Extended Family Unit

Kinship unit created when several nuclear units are joined in one household

Incest Rules

Norms prohibiting sex and marriage among parents and offspring, and at times other closely related kin

Institution of Kinship

organization of marriage and blood ties among members of a society into structures that, from a sociobiological perspective, allow adults to increase their genetic fitness and that, from a functionalist perspective, have consequences for regularizing sex and mating, providing for biological and social support, socializing the young, and placing the you into adult positions

Lineage

Kinship structure created when several family units are linked together by descent and residence rules

Marriage Rules

Norms specifying who can marry whom in a society, and when

Matrilineal Descent

Rule of descent specifying that the women's side of the family and kin network (especially her male relatives) are to be the most important in terms of property and authority

Matrilocal Rule

Kinship norm specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the female's family and kin

Moiety

kinship unit created when clans are linked together, diving a society in half into two kinship units

Neolocal Rule

residence rule indicating that a married couple and their children have autonomy in deciding for themselves where they want to live

Nuclear Family

family unit created by the married couple and their offspring

Patriarchy

situation where males control resources and dominate women in family relations and, more broadly, in relations outside the family as well

Patrilineal Descent

Rule of descent specifying that the male's side of the family and kin network are the be the most important in terms of property and authority

Patrilocal Rule

Kinship norm specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the male's family and kin

Polyandry

marriage rule allowing females to have more than one husband

Polygamy

marriage rules allowing for an individual to have more than one spouse

Polygyny

marriage rule allowing males to have more than one wife

Residence Rules

norms specifying where married couples are to live and reside

Romantic Love Complex

set of beliefs emphasizing mutual attraction and compatibility as the basis for selecting marriage partners

Cult Structure

unit organizing rituals and sustaining religious beliefs and values

pantheon

se of religious beliefs specifying the inhabitants, as well as their relations and life histories, of the supernatural realm

profane

denoting processes in the empirical world, in comparison with the sacred, which is of the supernatural world

Religious Rituals

stereotype sequences of behavior designed to make appeals to the forces of the supernatural realm

Religious Beliefs

conceptions about the nature of the sacred and supernatural as well as the entities and forces in the supernatural realm

Religious Values

conceptions of what is right and wrong, as well as what should exist and occur, that are viewed as emanating from supernatural forces

Sacred

objects and forces having a special quality because they are connected to perceived supernatural powers

Supernatural

realm where gods and unworldly forces operate

Credential Inflation

process whereby education credentials are sought by more and more individuals, with the result that they become less valuable on the labor market, thereby forcing students to acquire more credentials

Home Schooling

social movement in which partents are increasing teaching their children at home under guidelines set by state boards of education

Multiple-Track System

placement of students in different secondary schools depending upon their performance on standardized tests and grades in primary schools

Single Track with Multiple Lane System

placement of students in different lanes or tracks within the same secondary school depending upon their performance on standardized tests and grades

School Vouchers

proposal to allocate to each parent state monies for them to shop around and choose the public or private school that they think is the best for their children

Year-Round Schooling

increasing utilization of school facilities all year long thereby eliminating the traditional summer vacation

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