5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What are the 3 types of RNA? Describe each.
- Can scientists predict the path of evolution?
- What is the purpose of a test cross?
- What makes one protein different from another?
- What causes secondary sex characteristics in males and females? What secondary sex characteristics do males and females show?
- a mRNA formed by transcription, complimentary strand to the DNA sequence of a gene, carries instructions for the making of a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes
tRNA reads the mRNA by binding to the codon on the mRNA with the anticodon located on one end of the tRNA at the ribosome during translation, carries a specific amino acid for the codon on the other end of the tRNA, translates it into an amino acid sequence when subsequent amino acids are joined together
rRNA together these for the ribosome, is the site of protein synthesis
- b To determine genotype of a parent who is expressing the dominate allele; to see if this parent is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
- c The sequence of amino acids.
- d Males: testosterone / Secondary traits:
increase in height, longer and heavier bones, broader shoulders, thicker and tougher skin, deepened voice, facial hair, pubic hair, body hair, enlarged penis, scrotum, testes and formation of sperm
Females: estrogen / Secondary traits:
weight gain in breast, hips and buttocks, increase height, widening of hip, softer and smoother skin, growth of pubic hair and underarm hair, increase in breast size, enlargement of external genitalia, formation of ova, beginning of menstruation
- e No
5 Multiple choice questions
- A dominant allele is always expressed if it is present while the recessive allele is submissive to the dominant allele and isn't expressed unless paired with another recessive.
- DNA polymerase- enzyme responsible for adding complementary bases to a replicating DNA molecule, also edits and corrects the replicating strand of DNA
DNA helicase- enzyme responsible for unwinding the DNA strand and breaking H bonds between bases of DNA, allows for replication of the DNA molecule
RNA polymerase- enzyme responsible for opening the DNA molecule at the promoter region of a gene, adds complementary bases according to base pairing rules for RNA until it reaches a stop location on the DNA, produces mRNA
- 1) friends who use
2) low self esteem
3) lack of involvement in activities
4) availability of drugs
- microevolution- looks at the process by which inherited traits change over time in a population
5 major processes that affect the kinds of genes in a population from generation to generation are migration, mate choice, natural selection , mutation, and genetic drift
macroevolution- looks at the patterns in which new species evolve by studying the direction, diversity, or speed of change. Patterns are convergent evolution, co-evolution, adaptive radiation, extinction, gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.
- Overproduction- every population is capable of more producing more offspring than can survive
Variation- exists in every population, is the variation of inherited traits
Selection- individuals with specific traits are more or less likely to survive and have successful offspring
Adaptation- traits that improve survival and reproduction will become more common
5 True/False questions
What is gradualism? → The link between microevolution and macroevolution, and is the formation of new species
What is the difference between an autosome and a sex chromosome? How many of each are found in a gamete and in a somatic cell? → Sex chromosome: chromosomes that determine the sex of a offspring
1 in human gametes
2 in human somatic cells
Autosomes: chromosomes that carry genes for all trats except the sex of the offspring.
22 in human gametes
44 in human somatic cells
Briefly describe the diploid life cycle? → Several species of a animal evolving from a common ancestor and through the generations as they move to different environments they all evolve with their environment becoming new species
What is speciation? → The idea that large scale changes like formation of a new species require many small changes to build up over a long period of time
What are the three ways that genetic variation exists? Describe each. → Point mutation- caused by change of a single nucleotide (usually silent mutation)
Insertion or Deletion- caused by addition or subtraction of one or more nucleotides in a sequence (frameshift mutation)
Silent mutation- caused by change in a nucleotide of a gene but that change has no effect on the protein produced (usually point mutation)
Missense mutation- results when a codon is changed and causes a different amino acid to be put into the protein (replacement mutation)
Frameshift mutation- caused by addition or deletion of nucleotides (insertion or deletion)
Nonsense mutation- results when a codon for an amino acid if changed to a stop codon
-amino acids usually cut short