Tom Thumb to Secession
|Peter Cooper||built the first Aerican steam locomotive- 1830.|
|Samuel Morse||invented the telegraph, an apparatus that used electric signals to transmit messages|
|The telegraph||The operator would record the dots and dashes on paper, and the operator would translate them back into letters and numbers and give the person intended to know, the message.|
|Irish potato disease||a famine struck, and 1.5 million immigrants arrived in the U.S-1846-1860.|
|"Nativists"||Some Americans feared that Catholic immigrants were changing the character of the country. These Americans opposed of immigration.|
|"Know-Nothing Party"||Nativists formed secret anti-Catholic societies. When they were asked about their organization, they replied: "I know nothing." They split into northern + southern branches over the slavery ques. 1854- 1856|
|Black slaves||The South produced labor- intensive crops like cotton and tobacco that made slave labor highly economical. The demand for and value of slaves kept rising.|
|6. Slave codes||They were state laws in the South that controlled slaves. This also made it a crime for anyone to teach a slave to read or write- the slave could forge the papers to be free. They could not assemble in large groups, and needed passes to leave their property.|
|Harriet Tubman||This person returned to the South thirteen times to rescue others.|
|Frederick Douglass||This person became a famous abolitionist speaker.|
|Underground Railroad||This offered slaves to run away. Located along escape routes to the North, it was a network of "safe houses" owned by free blacks and whites oppose to slavery.|
|Evangelicalism||a Protestant Christian movement that began in Britain. The movement is committed to the truth of the Bible and the need for "being born again".|
|"Revivals" (Second Great Awakening)||People would travel great distances to hear preachers speak and to pray, sing, weep and shout.|
|Northeners||Northeners were unkind to blacks. They did not think they should have the same status or rights as whites.|
|Women's movement||Women did not want their men taking their money, allowing only them to vote. They were not allowed to engage in public speakings, and were sometimes hidden from view, or seated in different areas. Women could keep their own money, which they earned, married women also started to have their own property. Some states passed laws permitting a divorced woman to share custody of the children with her ex-husband. Several states allowed woman to get divorce if their husbands were treating them poorly.|
|11. California||1850-California wanted to be admitted to the Union as a free state. Southern congressmen were opposed to this, because there would then be more free states than slave states.|
|Compromise of 1850||A. California would enter the Union as a free state|
B. The rest of the Mexican Cession, known as New Mexico, would be divided into two territories, Utah and New Mexico, and popular sovereignty would decide the question of slavery.
C. The slave trade, but not slavery itself, would be banned in the nation's capital.
D. There would be a new, more effective, fugitive slave law. This new law required all citizens to help catch runaways through their testimony before commissioners and required northern law enforcement officers to arrest alleged runaways. Anyone who aided a fugitive could be fined ($1,000) and imprisoned for six months.
|In Canada||slaves would have to make it all the way to Canada in order to be safe.|
|Uncle Tom's Cabin||The book was written in 1852. The main character is a kind old slave, who is seperated from his wife and sold. At the end of the story, Toms owner, Simon Legree, orders his overseers to kill Tom because of his refusal to say where two runaway slaves have gone. Tom is then beaten to death. The major impact was the public's feelings about slavery. Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe.|
|Railroads||Stephen A. Douglas had wanted a railroad that would evtend from Chicago to the Pacific, but to build this railroad the rest of the Louisiana Purchase would have to be organized into a federal territory. Southern congressmen opposed Douglas's plan, because they preferred a southern railroad to the Pacific running out of New Orleans.|
|Missouri Compromise||1820- This had previously banned slavery in this region.|
|Kansas-Nebraska Act||It removed the Missouri Compromise's ban on slavery north of the Missouri Compromise Line. It organized the regions west of Missouri, Iowa, and the Minnesota Territory as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Southerners supported the bill and expected Kansas to be settled mostly by slaveholders from Missouri, who would vote in favor of slavery. Many northerners protested, but with support from some northern Democrats and President Pierce, the bill passed.|
|why the south left:||1.Southerners felt they should be able to take their slaves with them if they choose to move west.|
2.Abraham Lincon could get elected president, without even appearing on the ballot in most southern states, was too much to bear. To them, that was the only way to preserve their honor and self respect.
|why the north fought to keep the south in the union:||Lincon wanted to preserve the Union. If the Union had been allowed to break up, democracy would have failed as a form of government and many would have concluded that democracy should not be tried in the future.|