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Chapter 33 study guide

Herbaceous Plants

nonwoody. In temperate climates, the aerial parts (stems and leaves) of herbaceous plants die back to the ground at the end of the growing season.

What is the function of lignin?

strengthening polymer made up of monomers derived from certain amino acids.

Define and give and example of an Annual

Annuals are herbaceous plants (such as corn, geranium and marigold) that grow, reproduce, and die in one year or less.

Define and give an example of a Biennual.

take 2 years to complete theirt life cycles before dying. Examples include: carrot, Queen Anne's lace, cabbage, and foxglove

Define and give an example of a Perennial

herbaceous and woody plants that have the potential to live for more than 2 years. In temperate climates, the aerial stems of herbaceous plants such as iris, rhubarb, onion, and asparagus die back each winter.

Dormancy

an organism reduces it metabolic state to a minimum level to survive unfavorable conditions.

Deciduous Plant

shed their leaves before winter and produce new stems with new leaves the following spring

Evergreen Plant

shed their leaves over a long period of time, so some leaves are always present.

Root System

the underground portion of a plant that anchors it in the soil and absorbs water and dissolved minerals.

Shoot System

the above ground portion of a plant, such as stem and leaves

What is the function of Ground Tissue?

photosynthesis, storage, and support

What is the function of the vascular tissue?

strengthens and supports the plant

What is the function of the Dermal Tissue

provides a covering for the plant body

What is the function of Parenchyma Tissue?

storage, secretion and photosynthesis

What is the function of Collenchymas Tissue?

Provides much of the support in soft, nonwoody plant organs.

What is the function of Sclerenchyma Tissue

provides strength and support in the plant body

What is the function of Sclereids?

They are small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers.

What is the function of Fibers?

support the plant

Cellulose

structural polysaccharide consisting of beta glucose subunits; the main constituent of plant primary cell walls

Pectin

another cementing polysaccharide that is less variable in its monomer composition then the hemicelluloses.

What is the function of Xylem?

conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves and provides structural support.

What is the function of Phloem?

conducts food materials, that is, carbs formed in photosynthesis throughout the plant and provides structural support

Epidermis

complex tissue composed primarily of relatively unspecialized living cells.

Cuticle

a noncell, waxy convering over the epidermis of the aerial parts of plants that reduce water loss.

Stomata

small pores located in the epidermis of plants that provide for gas exchange for photosynthesis; each stoma is flanked by 2 guard cells, which are responsible for its opening and closing

Guard Cell

one of a pair of epidermal cells that adjust their shape to form a stomatal pore for gas exchange.

Periderm

tissue that can be anywhere from several to many layers thick, forms under the epidermis to provide a new protective covering as the epidermis is destroyed

Cork Cell

a cell in the bark that is produced outwardly by the cork cambium; cork cells are dead at maturity and function for protection and reduction of water loss

Cork Parenchyma

one or more layers of parenchyma cells produced inwardly by the cork cambium

Describe Meristematic Cells

also known as stem cells. A relatively undiffrentiated cell capable of repeated cell division. At each divison, at least one of the daughter cells usually remains a stem cell, wheras the other may differentiate as a specific cell type

Primary Growth

an increase in the length of a plant that occurs at the tips of the shoots and roots due to the activity of apical meristems

Secondary Growth

an increase in the girth of a plant due to the activity of the vascular cambium, this kind of growth results in the production of secondary tissue ex). wood and bark

Apical meristems

areas of dividing tissue, located at the tip of a shoot or root that gives rise to primary tissues; cause an increase in the length of the plant body.

Lateral Meristems

areas extending along the entire length of the stems and roots

Cork Cambium

located on the outer bark, composed of a thin cylinder or irregular arrangement of meristematic cells

Bark

the outer most covering over woody stems and roots, consists of all plant tissues located outside the vascular cambium.

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