sudden change in electrical charge of a nerve cell membrane; the electrical signal by which neurons send information
How do nerve cells communicate?
by releasing chemicals caller neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
Which neurotransmitter is used to communicate between nerves and muscles?
Which neurotransmitters are also classified as hormones?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Which neurotransmitter found in the brain is involved in the coordination of impulses, both motor andintellectual
Which neurotransmitter found in the brain acts to inhibit nerve activity and is important in preventing overactivity such as seizure activity?
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Which neurotransmitter is important for sleep and in preventing depression and increasing motivation?
Muscarinic receptors stimulate what type of muscles?
Nicotinic receptor stimulate what type of muscles?
What two types of receptors are found in the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)?
On which body system do alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs produce their greatest effect?
On which body system do beta-adrenergic blocking drugs produce their greatest effect?
Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs can also be used to treat what eye disorder?
When stimulated what effect to muscarinic and nicotinic receptor have on the PNS?
What effect does stimulation of the SNS have on the autonomic nervous system>
relaxation of the smooth muscles of the bronchi
constriction of blood vessels and sphincters of stomach
dilation of coronary blood vessels
decrease in gastric motility
Stimulation of the alpha-adrenergic nerves results in what?
Stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart result in what?
increase in heart rate
The cholinergic system uses what neurotransmitter
Anticholinergic eye drops may be used prior to an eye exam because they
dilate the pupil
What is the most common side effect of muscle relaxant medications?
What is the cause of epilepsy thought to be?
overexcited nerve membranes
The juxtaglomerular apparatus synthesizes what in response to low blood pressure?
The JG apparatus synthesizes what in response to decreased red blood cells in the filtrate?
Parkinson's disease is thought to be caused a decrease in what neurotransmitter in the brain?
When sodium moves out of the filtrate in the kidney what anion does it take with it?
What class of cardiac drug is used to increase the force of the contraction of the heart?
Many drugs fall into multiple classes, what drug used to treat Parkinson's disease is also an antiviral?
What drug is frequently given with Levodopa to decrease potential side effects and allow more levodopa to cross the blood brain barrier?
What is the difference between SIADH and Diabetes Insipidus?
SIADH caused by too much ADH
Diabetes Insipidus is caused by too little ADH
Why do we give patient's having chest pain nitrates to help relieve the pain?
to decrease myocardial oxygen requirements
Why are patient's with bronchitis given guaifenesin?
to thin secretions so they can cough them up
What is the major difference between first and second generation antihistmines?
second generation drug do not make patients as sleepy
Why are cholinesterase inhibitors given to patients with Alzheimer's disease?
to increase the amount of acetylcholine available in synapses
What is a common adverse reaction when taking topical decongestants?
What drug is often used to treat diabetes insipidus?
Why should patients taking misoprostol be concerned about being pregnant?
Misoprostol is a prostaglandin which can cause miscarriage
What substance manufactured by the liver is necessary for the digestion of fats?
What is the main function of the small intestines?
absorption of nutrients
What is the main function of the large intestines?
storage of waste and absorption of water from feces
Peptic ulcers are thought to be caused by what bacteria?
What is the most common treatment for peptic ulcers?
proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics
The presence of what in the chyme stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder and the release of bile?
What force causes fluid to filter out of the glomerulus and into bowman's capsule?
hydrostatic pressure (B/P)
Why is lantus insulin often given at night?
it is a basal insulin with no peak
Why are patient's with diabetes given insulin?
to allow glucose to enter the cells for use as energy
Why are patients with asthma or chronic lung disorders given long acting anti-inflammatory medications?
to decrease hyperreactivity to various stimuli
When a patient with chronic lung problems is unable to breath lying down he is said to have:
How do sulfonylureas lower blood pressure?
By stimulating beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes - sudden onset with profound lack of insulin
Type 2 diabetes - slower onset, insulin resistance but still producing some insulin
How does metformin lower blood sugar?
By sensitizing cells to circulating insulin and reducing hepatic production of glucose
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are also called what?
How do statins help lower cholesterol?
By inhibiting the manufacture of cholesterol and by promoting the breakdown of cholesterol
How do bile acid resins help lower cholesterol?
By increasing the excretion of cholesterol through the feces causing the liver to use cholesterol in the body to make more bile
How do ACE inhibitors lower blood pressure?
By inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system
How do calcium channel blockers work?
By inhibiting the movement of calcium ions across the cell membranes resulting in vasodilation, increased O2 to heart and decreased workload of heart
How to Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work?
By blocking the vasoconstrictive effect of the renin-angiotensin system
How does gemfibrozil help lower cholesterol?
By increasing excretion of cholesterol in feces, reducing production of triglycerides by liver
Fibric acid derivatives are most effective at lowering what type of cholesterol levels?
What is Prinzmetal angina?
Chest pain caused by spasms of blood vessels of heart not just narrowing
Why are beta-blockers indicated for management of angina caused by atherosclerosis?
They block beta receptors in the heart and JG apparatus causing decreased excitability in heart tissue, decreased C/O, decreased need O2 by heart and decreased B/P
What type of antianginal drugs are used to treat Prinzmetal angina and exercise induced angina?
Calcium channel blockers
Why are anti platelet medications used to treat peripheral vascular disease?
They decrease the formation of the platelet plug by decreasing the responsiveness of the the platelets to stimuli
Why is low molecular weight heparin used to prevent DVT after surgery?
They produce very stable results and require less lab monitoring and bleeding is less likely