ch 5

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function of skeletal system

protection
support
movement

2 types of bone

compact
spongy

bone comprised of

inorganic matrix of calcium salts

compact

forms shaft and ends, contains marrow space

spongy

trabeculae

yellow bone marrow found in

compact bone (fat)

red bone marrow found in

spongy bone (spaces within)

bone cells

osteoblasts: synthesis of bone tissue
osteocytes: mature bone cells
osteoclasts: breakdown of bone tissue

types of bones

long, flat, irregular

bone covering made of

peristeum

metaphysis

cartilage in between epiphysis and diaphysis that goes away when child stops growing

epiphysis

formed after birth (end of bone)

diaphysis

formed before birth (shaft of bone)

cartilage function

support

cartilage types (3)

fibro (collagen, thick bundles)
hyalne (collagen, thin bundles)
elastic (elastin fibers, flexible)

ligament function

attach bone to bone

ligament structure

dense fibrous ct, collagen

chloroblasts

cartilage forming cells

ossification

the condroblasts slowly die out during fetal development and the cartilage models begin to dissolve and are replaced by bone

osteoid

secreted by osteoblasts, forms matrix that provides internal structure and strength

parathyroid hormone

removes calcium from bone

calcitanin

adds calcium to bone

4 bones of top of skull (and sutures)

frontal (coronal suture)
parietal (sagital suture)
occipital bone (lambolaid suture)

baby soft spot

fontanelle

pectoral girdle

clavicles, scapulas

pelvic girdle

coxal bones and sacrum and coccyx

structure of axis

cervical (neck) 7 vertebrae
toracic (chest) 12
lumbar (lower back) 5
sacral (sacrum/ pelvis) 5 fused vertebrae
coccygeal (tailbone ) 4 fused

invertebral disk

a flat, elastic, compressible disk, composed of a soft gelatinous center and a tough outer layer of fibrocartilage that separates neighboring vertebrae from each other

ribs

12 pairs, 2 floating
sternal (1-7)
vertebro- chondral (8-10)
vertebral ribs and floating (11-12)

false ribs

8-12

sternum (3 fused parts)

upper, menubrium
mid, body
last, xiphoi-process

humerus

upper arm

ulna

medial forearm

radius

lateral forearm

carpal bones

8 in wrist

tarsal bones

7 in ankle

metacarpal

5 in hand

metatarsal

5 in foot

phalanges

14 in fingers/ thumb
14 in toes

femur

thighbone

tibia

medial calf

fibula

lateral calf

patella

kneecap

3 types of joints

fibrous
cartilagenous
synovial

fibrous joint

immovable (synatrosis)

cartilagenous joint

slightly movable, cartilage connection

synovial joint

freely movable (cliathrosis)

synovial membrane

lines synovial joint's interiaor cavity

synovial fluid

secreted by interior of the joint cavity to lubricate and cushion joint

articular cartilage

cartilage on either side of bone

joint cavity

gap between bones filled with fluid

bursa

membranes with fluid between joint cavity and muscles/tendons

osteoperosis

pores in bones that weaken and make brittle

arthritis (2 types)

osteo arthritis
rheumatoid
gout

osteoarthritis

because aging

rheumatoid

auto immune disorder

hinge joint

allows movement in one plain like ginges on a door (knee and elbow)

ball and socket joint

rounded head of bone fits into a socket, allowing movement in all planes (femur and coxal bone)

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