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Chemistry

Acids

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HCl

Hydrochloric Acid

H2SO4

Sulfuric Acid

HNO3

Nitric Acid

H3PO4

Phosphoric Acid

CH3COOH

Ethanoic Acid (vinegar)

Monobasic

Acids which donate one H+ ion in solution, e.g. HCl

Dibasic

Acids which donate two H+ ions in solution, e.g. H2SO4

Tribasic

Acids which donate three H+ ions in solution, e.g. H3PO4

Bases

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NaOH

Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)

KOH

Potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)

Mg(OH)2

Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia)

Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide

NH3

(Ammonia water)

Acid (Arrhenius)

A substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions.

Base (Arrhenius)

A substance that dissociates in water to produce OH- ions.

Hydronium ion

Formed when the H+ ion reacts with a water molecule to form the H3O+ ion

Strong

Acids or bases which fully dissociate in water

Weak

Acids or bases which do not fully dissociate in water

Proton donor

Bronsted Lowry definition of an acid

Proton acceptor

Bronsted Lowry definition of a base

Amphoteric

A substance which can act as an acid or a base

Conjugate base

What an acid changes into when it donates a proton

Conjugate acid

What a base changes into when it accepts a proton

Conjugate acid base pair

Any pair consisting of an acid and a base which differ by one proton.

Neutralisation

The reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water.

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