under his rule, the Franks became Christians and created one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe
battle of tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia and other places
treaty of verdun
signed in 843, the treaty divided the carolingian empire into three sections, which led to the eventual destruction of charlemagne's empire
book put together for William the Conqueror in England. It listed every castle, field and pigpen in England so they could make sure everyone paid their taxes.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
a church court to judge convict and punish heretics
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)
william of normandy
landed on coast of England and defeated king harold at the battle of hastings. took a census known as domesday book, became king of england
The threat of these new Muslims led to the call for a crusade.
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce
Charles Martels son who became Mayor of the Palace- he was the first Frankish king to be annointed by the Pope