LC Chem 4.3 Acid-Base titrations

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chemistry

Standard solution

A solution of precisely known concentration

Primary standard

A substance which can be obtained in a stable, pure and soluble solid form so that it can be weighed out and dissolved in water to give a solution of accurately known concentration.

Titration

A laboratory procedure where a measured volume of one solution is added to a known volume of another solution until the reaction is complete.

Equivalence point

The stage in the titration when the two solutions just react completely with each other

End point

The stage in the titration when the equivalence point is shown by an indicator

Graduated cylinders

Apparatus used for measuring approximate volumes of liquids

Volumetric flask

Apparatus which holds an exact volume of liquid when the meniscus rests on the calibration mark.

Pipette

Apparatus designed to deliver the exact volume of liquid that is indicated on the bulb

Burette

Apparatus which consists of a long narrow glass tube that is closed at the bottom by means of a tap

Conical flask

Apparatus designed to prevent liquid from splashing out when it is being swirled

Methyl orange

Indicator used for sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid

Yellow

Colour of Methyl orange indicator in basic solution

Red

Colour of Methyl orange indicator in acidic solution

Yellow to Red

Colour change for Methyl orange indicator (base to acid)

Sodium hydroxide

Base used when determining the percentage of ethanoic acid in vinegar

Phenolphthalein

Indicator used for sodium hydroxide with ethanoic acid

Phenolphthalein

Indicator used for determining the percentage of ethanoic acid in vinegar

Pink

Colour of Phenolphthalein indicator in a base

Colourless

Colour of Phenolphthalein indicator in an acid

Pink to Colourless

Colour change for Phenolphthalein indicator (base to acid)

Hydrochloric acid

Acid used when determining the percentage of water of crystallisation in hydrated sodium carbonate (washing soda)

Methyl orange

Indicator used for determining the percentage of water of crystallisation in hydrated sodium carbonate (washing soda)

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