Circulatory Disturbances - Hyperemia & Congestion

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Dr. Illanes

Indicates increase of ARTERIOLE-mediated engoregment of the vascular bed. Blood is OXYGENATED (red)

Hyperemia

Indicates passive, VENOUS engorgement caused by decreased outflow of blood. Blood is poorly oxygenated (blue - cyanotic). This is associated with congestive heart failure

Congestion

T/F: Hyperemia can be normal

True. It occurs in:
1. Digestion: increased blood flow to the GIT
2. Exercise: increased blood flow to muscles
3. To dissipate heat: increased blood flow to the skin to help cool the body (skin, face often turn red)
4. Neurovascular: INVOLUNTART increase in blood flow to the face (facial hyperemia) due to embarrassment of emotional distress

Pathological hyperemia is caused by an underlying pathological process, usually __________

inflammation

5 Cardinal signs of inflammation

1. Rubor (redness)
2. Tumor (swelling)
3. Calor (heat)
4. Dolor (pain)
5. Functio laso (loss of function)

Arteriolar dilation occurs secondary to ___________ __________ produced at the site of injury

inflammatory mediators

Pathological hyperemia is not only associated with inflammation but can also often be associated with ______

edema - due to vessels becoming leaky during inflammatory response

Examples of pathological hyperemia

gingivitis, bulbar and palperbral conjunctivitis

Gastric dilitation and volvulus, intestinal volvulus and colonic torsion are all problems that can result in _________ ___________

localized (venous) congestion

This type of congestion is usually the result of heart failure associated with edema

Pulmonary congestion

Chronic PULMONARY congestion is often secondary to _____-sided congestive heart failure

left

Subacute to chronic HEPATIC congestion is usually the result of _____-sided congestive heart failure. Secondary to this congestion is HEPATOMEGALLY

right

Chronic hepatic congestion often has this appearance when parenchyma is sectioned

"Nutmeg liver"

Nutmeg liver in chronic hepatic congestion is secondary to ____-sided CHF

right

Chronically, there is low-grade _____ and ______ pressure of centrolobular hepatocytes leading to atrophy and necrosis due to hepatic congestion

hypoxia, increased

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