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The presence or absence of how many antigens determines and individual's blood type in the
A-B-O system?

2

Antigen for Blood Type A?

Antigen A

Antigen for blood type b?

antigen b

Antigen for blood type for blood type O

No antigen

Antigen for blood type for blood ab

antigen ab

where are antibodies found?

red blood cells

What species can a precipitin be used for?

used for any species. (human/dog/rat/etc.)

Semen

*P-30
*Phosphate (found in Semen)
*Spermatozoa
*Only present in the vaginal cavity for 24 hrs.
*Acid Phosphate decreases with time

If one sees a stain a good test to use would be which?

Hemastix

What bodily fluid would now definitely find in acid phosphate?

You would find Semen

The presence of what enzyme tells you that a stain is seminal?

acid phosphate

What is the fluid portion of unclothed blood?

plasma

What is the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed?

serum

What transports oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues?

hemaglobin

what chemical substances are on the surface of red blood cells that impart blood type characteristics to the cells?

antigens

What term describes antigen-antibody reactions?

sereology

What immunological assay technique is used to detect the presence of minute quantities of drugs in blood and urine?

EMMIT

What test can tell id blood is characterized as being human in origin?

preciptin

What is the basic unity of heredity?

gene

what structure is called where genes are positioned on that looks like a thread like body?

chromosome?

Who determines the sex of the offspring?

male

what are a pair of allele genes that are identical called?

homologous

What is an observable characteristics of an individual called?

phenotupe

What color test is used to locate and characterize seminal stains?

acid phosphate

What is it that unequivocally identifies the microscopic appliance of semen?

sperm

What is it called when makes have a low sperm count?

oligiospermia

What protein is unique to seminal plasma?

p-30

The fingerprint classification used in most english speaking counties was devised by whom?

henry

Who was will west?

a man who had a virtual double & had a similar name

Under which circumstances have 2 people been found to have identical fingerprints?

Under no circumstance

How many ridge characteristics are there on average in a complete fingerprint?

about 150

what is the commonly encountered ridge characteristic (Used by AFIS)?

Bifurcation

What is the minim number of ridge characteristics necessary before 2 fingerprints can be identified as the same?

no min. exists based on experience and knowledge of an expert

when are fingerprints formed?

during detail development

Why are friction skin ridges useful useful?

Grip & resist slippage

When are the pores of the swear glands located?

skin ridges

What type of prints are not readily visible?

latent

What must one permanently do to alter on a fingerprint and produce scars to damage it?

dermal popille

Who arrested to destroy their fingerprints with corrosive acids?

john dillinger

What is the most common ridge pattern?

loop

what has more deltas, an arch or a loop?

loop

in the primary classifications system what finger is assigned a numerical value?

whorls

What percentage of the population falls in to the 1/1 primary classification category?

25%

Is it more important to know the value of ridge patterns in determining the uniqueness of a fingerprint or the type and position of ridge characteristics in determine the uniqueness of a fingerprint?

Type and position

What is AFIS?

computerized system for storing and retrieving fingerprint records.

What year did the FBI's AFIS become fully operational?

1990

What do you know about livescan images of fingerprints? (3)

-eliminated need for ink prints on paper cards.
-Sent to AFIS datavass electronically
-Captured when a subjects fingers and palms are okayed onto a glass plate.

What is an example of a plastic print?

Impression on a bar of soap

How can an investigator detect latent fingerprints without the use of chemicals or powder?

Using ruvis

Give an example of porous materials (3)

-Cloth paper
-Skin
-Cardboard

In which fingerprinting technique does sublimation occur?

iodine fuming

What is detected from a latent print using ninhydrin?

Protine material

What is a component of Physical developer>

silver nitrade

What is the order of chemical treatment techniques you would do to visualize latent prints? (3)

1. Iodine Fuming
2.Ninhydrine
3. Physical developer

Super Glue fuming is good to use on what type of materials? (4)

-Leather
-Plastic bags
-Floor Tile
-Metal

Which of the fingerprinting techniques produces a white-appearing latent print>

super-glue fuming

What substance can you substitute for ninhydrin if you need to?

D.F.O

What is most often used in conjunction with chemically induced fluorescence to visualize latent prints?

high intensity light sources

If you were trying to visualize latent prints? on leather and rough plastic what type of brush or brushes would be best to use?

Fiberglass brush or Camel hair brush

What would an investigator do next after successfully visualizing a latent print on an object?

take a 1 to 1 photo of the print

Accidental

Fingerprint patterns which contains two or more patterns or a pattern not covered by other categories.

AFIS

Systems which are designed to place fingerprints into computers so as to allow the comp. to categorize, compare a set of fingerprints.

Arches

Fingerprint patterns which do not have type lines, deltas, or cores.

Core

The approximate center of a finger print patterns

Delta

The ridge point nearest a type line divergence

Fingerprints

a reproduction of friction skin ridges on the palm side of the fingerprints and thumb

Latent Prints

Fingerprints that are invisible to the eye

Loop

Fingerprints which must have one or more ridges entering one side of the print, recurving and exiting the same side.

Plastic Print

ridge impressions left on soft material such as putty, wax, soap or dust

radial loop

a loop which opens toward the thumb

Type lines

the pattern area of a fingerprint surrounded by two diverging lines

Ulnar loop

a loop which opens towards the little finger

Whorl

fingerprint part terns which must have type lines and a minimum of two deltas

3 fundamental principles of fingerprints (3)

-A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two fingerprint posses identical ridge characteristics
-A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime.
-Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified

Explain how and why fingerprints are found on objects which have been touched?

Sweat and oil is constantly , secreted on to the surface of finger ridges. When skin comes in contact with a surface, these fluids are left behind the shape of a print.

Dusting

put powder of the print, blow excess powder off and then place tape over the print, remove tape and place on a white card. (used often on nonporous surfaces such as glass, plastic, or metal.

ninhydrin spray

-spray the area with the spray and then wait 24 hrs.
-ninhydrin reacts with amino acids and yields a purple substance.
-used on porous substances

Iodine spray

-place paper with suspected print in a container which iodine crystals- iodine
-fumes are absorbed by sweat and oil left behind and will give and orange-brown outline.
-used on nonporous surface

Reacting with Silver Nitrate and exposing to ultra-violet light

-the surface of suspected print is sprayed with silver nitrate solution and then you will get a blackish-brown print.
-It reacts with the salt in sweat when exposed with UV light
-used with porous substances

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