Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court case which established the principle of "separate but equal" and ruled that segregation was legal and constitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Supreme Court case which ruled that public schools must be integrated (banned segregation of public schools).
Non-violent protest against unjust (unfair) laws.
A form of protest in which people sit and refuse to leave.
In Montgomery, Alabama (December, 1955), a successful boycott (refuse to use) of the public buses was used to financially hurt the city and make a statement that segregation was unjust.
Sparked the Montgomery bus boycott by refusing to give up her seat to a white man when asked to move to the back of the bus (where African-Americans were supposed to sit).
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leading civil rights activist who preached civil disobedience to achieve racial equality. King was assassinated in 1968.
Separation of the races.
Mixing of different ethnic groups.
Civil rights activists who rode buses from town to town throughout the South, trying to integrate buses.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Ended segregation in public places, outlawed discrimination in hiring and protected the right of all citizens to vote.
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Ended literacy tests, allowed federal officials to register voters in states where local officials practiced discrimination. As a result, the TREND (the general direction) of African-Americans voting increased.
Jim Crow Laws
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for African Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws were the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated until the Korean War.
The Black Codes of the 1860s are not the same as the Jim Crow laws. The Black Codes were in reaction to the abolition of slavery and the South's defeat in the Civil War. Southern legislatures enacted them in the 1860s. The Jim Crow era began later, closer to the end of the 19th century after Reconstruction.
Black Codes (examples)
severe restrictions on freed slaves such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, limiting their right to testify against white men, carrying weapons in public places and working in certain occupations.
24th Amendment (1964)
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.