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Chapter 6-8 Tests

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle must occur _______ time (s) per glucose molecule?

2

In fermentation, _______ is ________.

NADH is OXIDIZED

How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?

They produce ATP.

The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the...

Matrix and the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?

Aerobic respiration.

Yeasts can produce ATP by either fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation; this, they are...?

Facilitative anaerobes.

The overall equation for cellular respiration of glucose is...

C₆H₁₂O₆+6O₂→6CO₂+6H₂O+energy

As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATPs?

2

A kilocalorie is defined as...?

The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree Celsius.

Which of the following options lists the stages of cellular respiration in the correct order?

Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

During chemiosmosis...

ATP is synthesized when H⁺ ions move through a protein port provided by ATP synthase

Which of the following statements regarding muscle fibers is false?

Training usually converts one type of muscle fiber into another

Which of the following statements regarding fast-twitch muscles is false?

Fast-twitch muscles produce more ATP per glucose than slow-twitch muscles

Which steps in the Krebs Cycle requires both NAD⁺ and ADP as reactants?

Step 3

A mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial membrane. Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in these mitochondria?

Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the __________.

loss of electrons...gain of electrons

The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving?

200,000 Calories

A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that....?

The muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical exercise

If you consume 1 g of each of the following which will yield the most ATP?

Fat

Which of the hollowing statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria

The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is...?

Lost in the form of heat

When a cell uses fatty acids for aerobic reparation, it first hydrolyzes fats to...

Glycerol and fatty acids

Rotenone is a poison commonly added to insecticides. Insects exposed to rotenone will die because...?

They will no longer be able to produce adequate amounts of ATP

Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic an anaerobic metabolism?

Glycolysis

A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspects that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit...

The citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

Respiration __________, and cellular respiration __________

is gas exchange....produces ATP

Which of the following organisms can make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide?

Wheat

During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

The end products of glycolysis include

NADH

Pyruvate

Froms at the end of glycolysis

Human use the calories they obtain from ______ food as their source of energy...

Food

The mitochondrial cristae are an adaptation that...

Increases the space from more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase complexes.

Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at partly due to...

the presence of lactate produced during fermentation in muscle cells

In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is...

Dehydrogenase

Bacteria that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are called...

Obligate anaerobes

Between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle,

Pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD⁺ is reduced to NADH

During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?

Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water

To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body must begin by..

Hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose

During REDOX reactions...

Electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance

Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?

Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step

The conversion of CO₂ and H₂O into organic compounds using energy from light is called...

Photosynthesis

They energy yield from the complete anaerobic breakdown of a single molecule of glucose...

Can vary with the mechanism used to shuttle NADH electrons into the mitochondrion

In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is...

An oxygen atom

The end product of the citric acid cycle include all of the following accept..

Pyruvate

A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. During the citric acid cycle, radioactivity would first appear in...?

Citrate

The term anaerobic means

Without CO₂

By-products of cellular respiration include...

Carbon Dioxide and Water

The greenhouse effect is...

Reduced by photosynthesis, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

A redox reaction involves the transfer of..

A hydrogen electron

Photoautotrophs

Produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules

Which of the following is a normal process of photosynthesis that could not occur if all reaction centers were inactivated by a toxin?

Donation of excited electrons by Chlorophylla to a primary electron acceptor

Which of the following are produced during the Calvin Cycle?

Glucose, ADP, and NADP+

What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and the food for the biosphere?

Producers

Photorespiration...

Is an evolutionary relic from when atmosphere O2 levels were low and did not interfere with rubisco.

CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via...

Stomata

In photophosphorylation, energy from electron flow is used to transport _________ from the ________ to the thylakoid compartment, generating a concentration gradient of ______.

H+...Stroma...H+

As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chain of the light reactions...

NADP+ is reduced to NADPH

According to this figure, how do H+ ions make their way from the stroma to the thylakoid interior?

Through an electron transport chain molecule.

Which of the following has been a major source of ozone destruction over the past 50 years?

Chlorofluorocarbons

Ozone...

Protects Earth from UV radiation

List in order the steps of the Calvin Cycle beginning with the entry of CO2.

Fixation, the CO2 gets reduced into 3PGA, G3P is made from the transformation, G3P exits, the ion gets regenerated.

The calvin cycle constructs ________, an energy rich molecule that a plant cell can use to make glucose or other organic molecules.

G3P

Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

ATP, NADPH, O₂

Sunlight is a type of _______ energy?

Electromagnetic

What is the source of energy that provides the boost of electrons during photosynthesis?

Light

Mitochondria transfer _____ energy from _______ to ATP; chloroplasts transform ______ energy into the chemical energy of ATP.

chemical...food...light

The light reactions occur in the _______, while the Calvin Cycle occurs in the ______.

Thylakoid membranes...stroma

The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem 1 are replaced by electrons from...

The bottom of the electron transport chain

Photosynthetic organisms derive their carbon from...

Carbon dioxide

Chlorophyll b...

Passes absorbed energy to chlorophyll a

Carbon fixation...

Occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO₂ are incorporated into an organic molecule.

Plant cells are protected from the harmful effects of oxygen radicals with...

Carotenoids

Why are most plants green?

Chlorophyll A reflects green light

A packet of light energy is called a....

Photon

What is the main adaptive advantage of the C₄ and CAM photosynthesis strategies over the C₃ strategy?

They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose under hot, dry conditions

Plant cells...

Have mitochondria and chloroplasts

The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breath is...

Photosynthesis

The summary of the equation for photosynthesis...

6CO₂+6H₂O+sunlight→C₆H₁₂O₆+6O₂

Where is chlorophyll found in the plant cell?

Thylakoid membranes

Photosystem 2

Passes electrons to photosystem 1

The energy that excited P680 and P700 is supplied by...

Photons

The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from...

Water

In most green plants, chloroplasts are...

Concentrated in a zone of the leaf called the mesophyll.

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