Secret Protocol NSNP
nazi-soviet non-aggresion pact
also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Non-aggression pact, signed in Moscow in 1939. Soviet Union and Nazi Germany publicly agreed not to fight and secretly divided up europe into spheres of influence
-Source: Gordon Wong
Stimson Doctrine + Maw
Response to Japanese taking of Manchuria. USA lacked power to respond. The United States would not recognize any impairment of China's sovereignty or of the Open Door policy- a moral lecture
site of massive (300,000 men) allied troop evacuation to Britain from Dunkirk, France
Luftwaffe + RAF
Luftwaffe launched massive raids on Britain. RAF did a very good job repelling the attacks. RAF only thing keeping Britain out of Nazi hands. "Never have so many owed so much to so few."
attacked by German submarine near iceland before WWII- 100 dead americans - caused congress to revise Neutrality Acts to allow armed transport of munitions to Britain
code breaking machines- Magic was for diplomatic messages and Ultra was for military messages
Bataan Death March
After Gen MacArthur stranded american troops in the Philippines, the Japanese captured them and forced them on a 80 mile march without food/water and killing those who fell behind. 600 americans and 10,000 Philippinos died
decisive battle of WWII. result of Doolittle raids. If japan took Midway, it could secure a defensive perimeter far from the United States. MAGIC decoded messages and USA was ready for attack and won battle.
German troops in Africa lead by Gen Erwin Rommel "the Desert Fox." Fought Britain for six months over the suez canal and lost
A. Philip Randolph
Labor leader whose threatened march on Washington led to the creation of Executive Order No. 8802, which prohibited racial discrimination in war industries and government jobs- head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
Official name for the June 6, 1944 D-day invasion. Allied troops storm a sixty mile stretch of land on the Normandy coastline. largest amphibious invasion in history. Start of the liberation of France
-Source:718 and Saving Private Ryan
1945 conference in Russia that was called by FDR to discuss plans for the post-war world. Britain wanted to protect its possessions, Russia wanted to punish Germany harshly and America lobbied for the creation of the United Nations Organization. Pretty much divided up Europe. There is a paragraph on pg 719
Truman was less patient with the soviets than FDR was. Truman learned in the middle of the conference that the Nuclear Bomb had been successfully tested. Truman no longer needed Soviet help in the Pacific War and he issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan- said surrender or we will destroy you
Name of plane that dropped first atomic bomb (Little Boy) on Hiroshima, Japan.
Josip Broz Tito
leader of Yugoslavian communist government, broke with stalin in 1948 to form its own independent communist government
George F. Kennan- LT FC Mr. x
American diplomat in Moscow, architect of the Cold War policy of containment. Told US officials with a long telegram that only toughness would work with the soviets. Known as the father of containment or Mr. X
Organization created by Stalin to organize and coordinate communist activities around the world
Secret report by the national security council that would characterize US Cold War strategy for decades; it saw the clash between US and the USSR as a fight between good and evil and reversed post-war military demobilization, focusing of military build-up
Truman recognized the French puppet government of Bao Dai after Chiang Kai-shek's regime collapsed. Alliance with Bao Dai made USA appear to be allied with French- colonial power
MacArthur called for an attack on China after China's surprise entry into the Korean War. He wanted to bring back Chiang Kai-shek. He denounced the concept of limited war (war without nukes, confined to one place) and suggested that Truman was practicing appeasement by trying to negotiate with China. As a result Truman fired MacArthur.
MacArthur's Sept 15, 1950 invasion at heavily fortified Inchon caused the liberation Seoul, the capital of South Korea, pushing the North Koreans back. Truman changed his war goal to the forced unification of Korea.
North-South korean borderline was set on the 38th parallel, its pre-war position
John Foster Dulles and "massive retaliation"
Secretary of State under Eisenhower. He spoke of a "holy war" against "atheistic communism" and rejected the policy of containment. Appeared arrogant and hectoring and averse to compromise. said neutrality was immoral and short-sighted. "massive retaliation" was the administrations plan for the obliteration of the soviet state or China if either one became aggressive
U2 and Gary Powers
American U2 spy plane piloted by Gary Powers crashed 1200 miles inside the USSR. Moscow admitted to shooting the plane down and paraded Gary and the photos he took of russian military bases around.
1957 proclamation that the USA would send military aid and, if necessary, troops to any Middle-eastern nation threatened by communist aggression
Presidential candidate for the States Rights Democrat party (Dixiecrats) in response to the Democrat party's Pro-Civil rights plank. Strom was the pro-segregation governor of south carolina
Joseph R. McCarthy
Wisconsin senator who launched a massive public campaign against communism and the soviet spies and sympathizers that he claimed were inside the federal government. he was later discredited but still created McCarthyism
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were arrested in 1948 for passing atomic secrets to the soviets; they were found guilty of treason and executed in 1953
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
Landmark supreme court case in 1954 that overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896). It desegregated public schools by arguing that racially separate schools are inherently unequal.
Head of the NAACP's Legal Defense and Educational Fund in the 1940's. His colleagues worked to destroy the separate but equal doctrine established in Plessy v Ferguson
A department store seamstress and active NAACP member who was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man on a bus. Caused the Montgomery bus boycott which eventually lead to the repeal of Alabama's bus segregation laws
Faubus + Little Rock 9
Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, famously said that there would be blood in the streets it plans to desegregate public schools went through. The "Little Rock Nine" entered Central High only after a federal judge intervened. Eisenhower used paratroopers from the Arkansas National Guard to protect the students for the rest of the year. Eisenhower's federal intervention was a critical step to racial equality
Defense Secretary. Suggested a naval quarantine of Cuba after missile sites were seen by american spy planes. Promoted americanization of Vietnam, but expressed skepticism as to whether victory could be achieved.
After the Bay of Pigs fiasco. Mongoose was designed to disrupt trade with the island, support raids on the island from Miami, and kill Castro. The CIA sent over poisonous/explosive cigars to Castro. Mongoose also tightened the naval blockade around Cuba.
MLK believed that only through crisis would the civil rights movement advance. MLK and the SCLC planned a campaign in Birmingham, anticipating violence, the named it Project C for confrontation. King wanted America to see the racism and hatred that marred the nation.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Police commissioner in Birmingham who ordered police to used powerful water guns against the protesters.
Kennedy promised to lead america into a new frontier. Made the federal government work to eradicate poverty, guarantee healthcare to the elderly, and provide decent schools for all children. Kennedy's main focus was the economy. Kennedy's vision best realized in the space program.
Night club owner who shot Lee Harvey Oswald who was Kennedy's assassin.
Great Society + LBJ
Johnson's vision for America. LBJ believed the federal government must act to alleviate poverty, end racial injustice and improve the lives of all Americans
Kennedy helped the Diem regime by airdropping supplies and raid teams to push back the Vietcong guerillas from the north. Kennedy sent military advisors over to Vietnam to help the US equipped Army of the Republic of VietNam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
In response to unconfirmed attacks on US destroyers by Vietnamese patrol boats, Johnson ordered retaliatory airstrikes on patrol boat bases and oil depots. Resolution gave the president the authority to take all necessary measures to repel any attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression
Operation Rolling Thunder
Johnson ordered ORT, a bombing program that continued uninterrupted until 1968.
Senator William Fulbright
held televised hearings on whether the national interest was served by Vietnam. Hearings made Americans think about the conflict and the nations role in it.
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Kerner was the head and warned that America was moving towards two societies- one white and one black- separate and unequal
Vietcong attacked provincial capitals in southern vietnam, the saigon airport, the presidential palace and ARVN hq. Tet called American military leader's predictions into question. Showed that the Vietcong could attack when and where they wish.
James Earl Ray
MLK's assassin. White, forty year old drifter. MLK's assassination caused riots in major cities, provoking a white response