08. Digestive System

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abdominal computed tomography (CT)

a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen

abdominal ultrasound

a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves

absorption

the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

acid reducers

decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth

aerophagia

the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach

amebic dysentery

an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite

anabolism

the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

anal fissure

a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that cau cause severe pain during a bowel movement

anastomosis

a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures

anorexia

the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance

anoscoopy

the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum

antacids

neutralize the acids in the stomach

antiemetic

a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting

anus

the lower opening of the digestive tract

aphthous ulcers

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers

ascending colon

travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver

ascites

an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

bariatric surgery

performed to treat morbid obesity to restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested

bariatrics

the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases

bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver

biliary tree

provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine

bilirubin

the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin

body mass index (BMI)

a number that shows body weight adjusted for height

bolus

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

borborygmus

the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine

botulism

food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

bowel incontinence

the inability to control the excretion of feces

bruxism

the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting

cachexia

a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS

capsule endoscopy

a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows

catabolism

the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide

cecum

a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen

cheilosis

a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth

cholangiography

a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium

cholangitis

an acute infection of the bile duct

cholecystalgia

pain in the gallbladder

cholecystectomy

the surgical removal of the gallbladder

cholecystic

pertaining to the gallbladder

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones

choledocholithotomy

an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones

cholelithiasis

the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

cholera

severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera

chyme

the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine

cirrhosis

a progressive degenerative disease of the liver

cleft lip

a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development

cleft palate

the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus

colectomy

the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon

colon

the longest portion of the large intestine

colonoscopy

the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum

colorectal carcinoma

colon cancer

colostomy

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface

constipation

having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week

Crohn's disease

a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon

defecation

the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine

dehydration

a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance

dental calculus

dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth

dental caries

an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity

dental plaque

forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth

dental prophylaxis

the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus

dentist

specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity

dentition

refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws

descending colon

travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon

diarrhea

an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration

digestion

the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use

diverticulectomy

the surgical removal of a diverticulum

diverticulitis

the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon

diverticulosis

the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon

duodenum

the first portion of the small intestine; extends from the pylorus to the jejunum

dyspepsia

pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

edentulous

without teeth

emesis

the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting

endoscope

an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures

enema

the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity

enteritis

an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens

epiglottis

a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing

eructation

the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach

esophageal varices

enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum

esophagus

the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach

feces

solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus

flatulence

the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum

gallbladder

a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver

gallstone

a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components

gastrectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

gastritis

a common inflammation of the stomach lining

gastroduodenostomy

the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum

gastroenteritis

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines

gastroenterologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines

gastroesophageal reflux disease

the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

gastrointestinal tract

the structures of the digestive system

gastrorrhea

the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach

gastrostomy tube

a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach

gingiva

the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks; also known as the gums

gingivectomy

the surgical removal or diseased gingival tissue

gingivitis

the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation affects only the gums

halitosis

an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders; also known as bad breath

hard palate

the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane

hematemesis

vomiting blood

hemoccult test

a lab test for hidden blood in the stools

hemorrhoidectomy

the surgical removal of hemorrhoids

hemorrhoids

occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening

hepatectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the liver

hepatitis

an inflammation of the liver

hepatomegaly

the abnormal enlargement of the liver

hepatorrhaphy

surgical suturing of the liver

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters

hiatal hernia

a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm

hyperemesis

extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration

ileectomy

the surgical removal of the ileum

ileocecal sphincter

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine

ileostomy

the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall

ileum

the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine

ileus

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine

inflammatory bowel disease

the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines

inguinal hernia

the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin

internist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems

intestinal obstruction

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intesting caused by a physical obstruction

intussusceptions

the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part

irritable bowel syndrome

a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea

jaundice

a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes

jejunum

the middle portion of the small intestine; extends from the duodenum to the ileum

large intestine

extends from the small end of the small intestine to the anus

laxatives

medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements

lips

form the opening to the oral cavity

liver

a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen

liver transplant

an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer

lower esophageal sphincter

a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach

malabsorption

a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it

malnutrition

a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients

malocclusion

any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth

mastication

chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed

maxillofacial surgery

specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries

melena

the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools

metabolism

includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients

morbid obesity

the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity

nasogastric intubation

the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach

nausea

the urge to vomit

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation

obesity

an excessive accumulation of fat in the body

occlusion

describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth

oral cavity

contains the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium

oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea

oral thrush

develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control

orthodontist

a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures

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