the cardiovascular system consists of what two circuits?
pulmonary circuit & systemic circuit
right side of the heart; carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns to the heart
left side of the heart; supplies blood to every organ of the body
direction of the pulmonary circuit
blood that has circulated through the body pumps into a large artery called the pulmonary trunk -> o2-poor blood goes to lungs & picks up fresh o2 -> returns to the LEFT side of the heart via pulmonary veins
direction of the systemic circuit
blood is pumped into the aorta where it delivers o2 to every organ and picks up waste -> blood returns via SUPERIOR VENA CAVA & INFERIOR VENA CAVA -> drains into R atrium
superior vena cava drains...
inferior vena cava drains...
everything below the diaphragm
what are the great vessels?
pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta, superior vena cava & inferior vena cava
where are the great vessels located?
at the base of the heart, the opening of the pericardial sac
what are the layers of the wall of the heart?
fibrous pericardium, parietal pericardium, epicardium (adipose + visceral pericardium), myocardium, endocardium
what are the functions of fibrous skeleton?
2. prevents valves from overly stretching
3. anchors myocardium
4. electrical insulator between atria & ventricles
collagen & elastic fibers btwn. chambers and around valves
inflammation of the pericardium; takes up more space and begins to rub when the heart beats
extra fluid within the pericardial cavity; doesn't allow the heart to fully expand and fill, causes heart fibrillations
where is the heart anatomically located?
thoracic cavity, btwn. the lungs & deep to the sternum, superior to the diaphragm
left & right atria
- superior base of the heart
- receives blood returning to the heart by way of the pulmonary veins
an extension of the atria; contain pectinate muscle & have the ability to help pump the heart
left & right ventricles
inferior chambers of the heart; pumps & ejects the blood into the arteries and keeps it flowing around the body
- separates the atria from the ventricles below
- coronary sinus where the coronary vein drains into
anterior interventricular sulcus
- separates the left & right ventricles
- coronary arteries
posterior interventricular sulcus
- ? back of the heart *need to look up
what 3 vessels bring blood to the right atria?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava & coronary sinus
embryo remnant; used to be foramen ovale (embryo term); bypassed the lungs for oxygen & blood exchange; right atrium -> left atrium -> left ventricle -> aorta
extensions of ventricles; papillary muscles that attach to the AV valves