Words and Parts Thereof 31-48

18 terms by nataliechuang 

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nucleotide

basic unit of DNA; phosphate group + pentose + sugar (deoxyribose) + nitrogenous base (A, T, G, C)

codon

64 possible in H. Sapiens. A triplet of bases in Messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein production

anti-codon

a triplet of bases in Transfer RNA (tRNA) that recognizes a codon triplet and creates a specific amino acid during protein production

transcription

DNA's instructions are copied and carried from nucleus to ribosome via mRNA

translation

instructions are turned into proteins at the ribosome; mRNA with codon and tRNA with anti-codon

phenotype

outward expression of the genes; the actual characteristics (having 5 fingers)

genotype

actual genes as in PP and Pp = polydactyl while pp = normal

homozygous

(homo = same; zyg = united) genes are the same (PP and pp)

heterozygous

(hetero = different) genes are different (Pp)

alleles

possible gene type (P or p)

locus

the place where a gene is located in a chromosome

testcross

a way to figure out an unknown genotype by choosing the organism with a known genotype, namely one that is HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE (aa)

autosome

any non-gender determining chromosome (#1-22 in H. Sapiens)

holandric

trait carried on the Y chromosome

mosaic

when only some of the cells have a certain genome (mutation)

trisomy

three chromosomes instead of the homologous pair (two)

non-disjunction

when chromosomes fail to separate properly during nuclear division

translocation

when a piece of a chromosome attaches to a non-homologous chromosome

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