Szaz and Foucault
"social construction" 1961 1971
Myth of Mental Illness
Madness and Civilization
Shorter and Roth "ORGANIC"
Whiggish History 1997 1986
History of Psychiatry
Reality of Mental Illness
Earliest Explanation for madness
Supernatural before 600 BC
Greek Biblical Egyptian Hindu
Three Broad explanations for Madness through history
Supernatural biological cognitive.
Gods effects on ill
Hera causes Teeth grinding
ares foaming at the mouth
Hippocrates Theory on the sacred disease
Biological- Humeric Theory
The four humors
blood choler phlegm bile
The clinical Gaze
Mania and melancholy (bile)
First cognitive ideals
Golden age of athens 400's - 300's BC
Sophocles "Oedipus Rex" first internal dilemmas
Rise of christianity ideals
Good and bad madness
visions and miracles vs. possession and diabolical mania
Salem Witch possible biological explanations
encephalitis, rye poisoning, porphyria
Salem Witch possible Cognitive Explanations
PTSD from indian attacks
First Biological explanation for witchcraft
Johannes Weyer "On the Tricks of Conjuring Demons" 1563
Edward Jordan Coined Hysteria in 1603
Enlightenment main ideals
Madness = Irrationality
Sanity = Reason
Rene Descartes theory
Dualism - the presumption that mind and body are two separate entities that interact
Deism - there is a higher creator but left the world to run it self by its own natural laws
John Locke Theory
Tabula Rasa - mind starts as a blank sheet that is bombarded by experience resulting in a current mental state
NOBLE SAVAGE - The notion, often associated with Rousseau, that non-Western or "primitive" people are actually happier and more virtuous than Westerners. Based on the idea that humans are free and equal in "a state of nature" but that social institutions deprive them of that freedom and equality.
St Mary's of Bethlehem 1247
Rise of the asylum started notion that...
Madness was a domestic responsibility for the patients family. e.g. Public or private
Early asylum conditions 17th and 18th centuries
Chaos and confusion
irons, chains, straightjackets, whips
"holding place for lunatics"
Treatment in 17th and 18th centuries depended heavily on ....
Class and power. The more private and expensive the more humane the care.
Voyeurism's rise to popularity attracted people to asylums like ...
zoos. A very carnival atmosphere.
One of first incidents that led to asylum reform
William Norris 1815
a sailor held in chains for 14 years
The potential to earn money brought a ...
"Trade in Lunacy"
Asylums became the birth place of ...
psychiatry. Those interested in the field flocked to asylums to study and experiment with treatments.
Moral management proponents
William Battie "The Treatise on Madness" 1758
Francis Willis Treated King George in 1788
Moral management main points
Personal Control of patients by the doctor
Teaching patients to internalize control
First Moral therapy asylum
William Tuke York Asylum 1796
Pacifist Quaker influences
Moral Treatment in America
Benjamin Rush (1745 - 1813)
Occupational Therapy - Addiction as an illness
Dorthea Dix - 1802- 1887
Activist for the poor insane lobbied for better facilities
Moral therapy in france in 1800's
Alienists Phillip Pinel
Panoptic Eye originated
Jeremy Bentham - 1785
Jean Esquirol 1782 - 1840
First to Categorize patients
Deficiency vs. Disease = retardation vs. insanity
Emil Kraipelin - Mood vs. thought disorders finding patterns over time to indicate mood
dementia praecox - modern schizophrenia
Richard Kraft Ebing- Sexual Diagnosis
Sadism and Masochism from Kraft Ebing
Marquis de Sade 1740 - 1814
Leopold von Sacher- Masoch 1836 - 1885
homosexuality is an illness
The yellow wallpaper
Charlotte Perkins gillman