When was Agricola born? What was his father's history?
Agricola was born in 40 A.D. in the Roman colony Forum Iulii (Frejus) in southeast Gaul. His father was a senator for Emperor Tiberius, but Emperor Caligula didn't like him and had him executed when Agricola was still a baby.
What did Agricola enjoy in school? Did he pursue it? Why?
Agricola enjoyed philosophy in school, but he did not pursue it. His mother thought philosophy was a passionate interest that was not appropriate for Romans and senators and restrained Agricola's interest in it.
How and where did Agricola begin his time in the military?
Agricola began his time in the military as a tribunus in the Roman army in Britain at age eighteen.
What major event did he witness during this time?
During this time, he witnessed Boudicca's revolt in 60 A.D.
When did he return to Britain? What was his assignment? Was he successful? What was his next assignment?
Agricola returned to Britain in 70 A.D. His assignment was to command the Twentieth Legion which was stationed at Viroconium (Wroxeter) in the west of England and had become undisciplined and troublesome. He was very successful in this, and he was promoted to governor of Aquitania (central region in modern France) in Gaul.
What was the highest political office Agricola achieved? How much higher could one have gone?
The highest political office that Agricola achieved was consul. This is the highest elected political office in Rome.
What was the period of Agricola's governorship of Britain? What were his achievements during this period, military and otherwise?
Agricola was governor of Britain from 78 A.D. to 85 A.D. During this period, he conquered Wales, achieved many successful campaigns in Scotland, the last and greatest of which involved a victory at Mons Graupius (northern Grampian Mountians), extended the road system, built forts, and built the fortress at Deva. He also Romanized the natives, telling them that it was better to side with the Romans than against them when the Romans set fair laws. He improved education for the sons of British chieftains and taught them Latin.
What may have terminated Agricola's term as propraetor in Britain?
Agricola was recalled in 85 A.D. This may have been because of Emperor Domitian's jealousy.
How old was Agricola when he left Britain? What did he do after that? How long did he live?
Agricola was 45 when he left Britain. He lived in retirement until his death in 93 A.D.
Why must we be careful about the historical material we read about Agricola?
Most of the information we have about Agricola comes from the works of his son-in-law, Tacitus. These might be biased based on family ties.
What is known for certain about the source or meaning of the name "Rome"?
For whom was Rome named according to legend?
Legendary King Romulus
On which hill did the city begin? With what legendary event?
Romulus drew the sacred boundary line of Rome with his plow
What year is the traditional date of the founding of Rome?
Is there any archaeological evidence for the estimated date for the founding of Rome?
Yes: Archaic huts
What tribe inhabited the area at the time? What language might they have spoken?
The Latini, who spoke Latin
List the factors which made Rome's location a good one. How many hills were eventually included in the city?
-Bend of the Tiber River that could easily be bridged
-Ford nearby where sea, river, land trade and travel were good
-7 Hills, Strategic defense mechanism
What was the cloaca maxima? What purpose did it serve to make the area more habitable? What is the scientific usage of the word "cloaca" today?
The great sewer into which all water flowed. It drained the marshy valley lands.
Biological drain used to dispose of waste and lay eggs
How many kings did the Romans have? Who was the last? How and when did his reign end?
The last was Tarquinius Superbus
He was driven out in 509 BC
What form of government replaced the kings? Does this sound familiar? Why?
This is familiar, since the same thing happened in the USA: threw out the king and began a republic
When did Rome become an empire?
The republic ended in 31 BC
Augustus, the first emperor, lived from 63 BC to AD 14
What was the significance of the Forum Romanum in the context of the Rome as a city and the empire as a whole?
It was the political, cultural, commercial and social center of the city, and therefore of the entire empire.
What was the miliarium aureum, and how did it underscore the significance of the Forum Romanum?
It was the Golden Milestone, and it marked the place where all roads in the empire stemmed from. It also symbolized that this was the heart of Rome.
Look up forensic in an English dictionary. Summarize its meanings in English. What is its derivation (specifically, from what Latin word is it derived, and how does this word relate to the word forum)
An adjective relating to debate, crime or law. From the Latin word forensis (of the forum), meaning in open court, public. Also, the forum contained many open courts.
Define basilica and curia
basilica: law court
curia: senate house
Define rostrum, i n
How did it change in form and meaning as it is used in the forum?
beak, ship's prow
In the forum, a rostra, rostrorum, n pl, is a speaker's platform. Hanging on it, were the rams of all the ships captured by Rome at sea. It was a symbol of Rome's power.
What was the Via Sacra?
The sacred way, ran through the forum
How and when did Judaea become a client state of Rome?
Pompey the Great took it over in 56 BC
How had Julius Caesar and Augustus treated the Jewish religion? Give details.
They acknowledged and tolerated it by allowing synagogues to be built, the celebration of the sabbath, collection of Temple tax
What three factors are said to have caused the situation to deteriorate during the late first century CE?
increase of taxes
non Jewish governors
lack of unified Jewish leadership leads to revolt
What was Vespasian's role in the general revolt of 66 CE? Who was emperor at the time?
He was assigned by emperor Nero to crush the revolt
At what rank did Vespasian end up? In what year?
Emperor, 70 AD
What responsibility did Vespasian give to his older son, Titus?
Conquest of Jerusalem
What were three results of Titus's actions?
Siege and conquest of Jerusalem
Destruction of Temple of Jerusalem
Prisoners brought back to Rome, Titus celebrated a triumph using Temple treasury
How long did the seige of Masada last? Give years. When was this in relation to the conquest of Britain and the eruption of Vesuvius?
Before vesuvius (79) but after conquest of Britain (43 AD)
From whose history do we know about the final days of the seige? How close was he in time to the event?
Josephus- first century AD, he lived during the time period
How are modern hand tools like and unlike those of the Romans?
Almost all of them are the same, such as mallets, chisels, crowbars trowels, saws, and planes. However, the Romans did not have the small electric motor which makes the modern power tool more efficient and easy to use.
How is cement made? How is it used in building?
Cement was made by heating pieces of limestone very high and then crushing them to a powder with fine sand and clay. They were mixed with water to make a smooth paste. Cement was used for a thin adhesive layer between bricks or stones.
What is the difference between cement and concrete? What was the Roman word for concrete?
Concrete is cement mixed with rubble such as stone chips, broken bricks, and pieces of tile. The Roman word for concrete was opus caementicium.
What innovations in architecture were made possible by the use of concrete?
Arches and vaulted ceilings became possible when concrete was used as a substitute for stone.
What are three examples of innovations made by the use of concrete?
It was used to build aqueducts, the Pantheon, and the Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum).
Of what materials were insulae usually built? What two problems did this cause? How did Augustus seek to remedy the problems?
Insulae were built out of brick and timber, which were cheaper. They had a reputation of being rickety and prone to catching fire. Augustus organized fire brigades and set the maximum height of an apartment building to 70 feet.
How long ago did the Romans begin making concrete? Don't just use the first paragraph in the article; look for more specific information to get the earliest date.
2000 years ago, earlier than the 2nd century BC
What was the primary difference between Roman and modern concrete in the formula? What is the difference which seems to be contrary to expectation?
Modern concrete is a mix of lime-based cement, water, sand, and aggregates like fine gravel. Roman concrete was three parts volcanic ash to one part lime past (burned lime=quicklime, and water).
Roman concrete is considerably weaker (10x) than modern concrete, yet it extremely durable, having lasted so long with little to no maintenance.
What is the key ingredient in Roman concrete? What was the Roman recipe? How do we know?
Volcanic ash. The recipe was three parts volcanic ash to one part lime paste. We know from Vitruvius, a first century BC architect and engineer.
What other societies used lime-based mortar? What was the Chinese variation?
Greeks and Chinese, Chinese used sticky rice
What was the Roman innovation in going from mortar to concrete?
Romans added an aggregate like brick to make concrete from mortar.
How did Augustus stimulate the building industry?
He initiated a citywide program to repair old monuments and erect new ones.
What was preferred ash at this time? Where was it found? How old was it?
Volcanic ash from a deposit called Pozzolane Rosse, and ash flow that erupted 465,000 years ago from the Alban Hills volcano, 12 miles southeast of Rome.
What was thought by the Romans to be superior about this ash?
The Romans thought it made the concrete more durable, well bonded, coherent, robust.
Look up the English words coherent and robust and list their Latin roots
Cohaerere: to stick together (cum+ haerere)
Robustus: strong (from the word for oak)
What, according to modern scientists, made this ash better?
The ash's unique mix of minerals helped the concrete withstand chemical decay and damage.
Where was Pulvis Puteolanus found? What use of concrete did it enhance? Why? How extensive was its use geographically?
Deposits near the Bay of Naples. It was used for harbor structures submerged in salty Mediterranean water since the ash mitigates deterioration when submerged, which would destroy normal concrete. From the coast of Italy to Israel to Alexandria to Pompeiopolis.
How does Pulvis Puteolanus compare with modern concrete for this use? What is thought to be the mechanism?
Modern concrete is easily destroyed by seawater. Chemical reactions among the lime past, ash, and seawater created microscopic structures within the concrete that trapped molecules like chlorides and sulfates that harm concrete today.
What happened to the use of concrete during the Middle Ages? What reason is suggested?
It pretty much disappeared. Really large projects could only be done with the appropriate bureaucracy, organization which the Romans had but the Middle Ages didn't.
How was Rome's growth unlike that of other Roman towns? Why might it have come about in this way?
Unplanned and unsystematic, unlike other cities that used the grid system. It was the first town, before they actually started planning towns, also the hills could have presented a problem for the grid system
How does the population density of first-century Rome compare with that of modern New York and Calcutta?
Rome: 125,000 people per sq mi
How was Ostia related to Rome?
Ostia was Rome's sea port. It was at the mouth of the Tiber river and ships brought goods to Rome thru Ostia, up the Tiber.
Piraeus was the seaport of Athens
What was the Subura?
The poor part of town north of the Forum, crowded, noisy, dirty. People lived in apartment buildings/insulae
Where did many of the rich/aristocratic Romans live?
Summarize the paragraph about the Roman water and sewage system.
Aqueducts brought 200 million gallons of water into town per day. Rich people had water piped into their house, poor people got it from public fountains. The city had a complex drain/sewer system that carried waste from houses, baths, fountains, and lavatories to the Cloaca Maxima, which emptied into the Tiber
What attempt was made to relieve traffic congestion? Who was exempt?
No wheeled vehicles were allowed in the streets during the day, with the exception of construction wagons, like those of Hateirus.
In addition to the risk of fire and the collapse of the insulae, what were a couple of other dangers of living in an area like the Subura?
crime, violence, and disease
How far back in Roman history did patronage begin? List some ways one Roman might become a cliens of another.
Freedmen became clients of their former masters. Solders became clients to their commanders.
What are some unpleasant features of being a client?
Many times the sportula was not enough to buy a decent meal and the salutatio was a big inconvenience. Also, at dinner parties they were often served inferior food, which was a big embarassment.
How far up the social scale did patronage go?
All the way to the Emperor
What is the derivation of the word senator? How could you identify a senator? How did one become a senator? What was the basic requirement for becoming and remaining a senator? What was the job of the censores?
From senex (old man)
Toga with a broad purple stripe, sat in reserved places at public events
Being the son of a senator, being elected quaestor (in the republic), or selection by the emperor
1,000,000 sesterces from land. Censores made sure senators had enough money
What is the derivation of the word eques? How could you identify an eques? What was the basic requirement for becoming an eques?
equus: one who could own a horse
Toga with narrow purple stripe, gold ring
400,000 sesterces, but could do business
What government post was limited to equites? Why might this be?
Governor of Egypt. Rome was too dependent on Egyptian grain to risk a powerful senator taking Egypt and cutting off the grain supply to Rome
Who were the plebs? How wide were the socioeconomic differences among the plebs? If one had been born a pleb, was there a chance of rising higher? Was there a likelihood of rising higher?
Everyone else. The plebs could be relatively wealthy or dirt poor. There was a chance but not a likelihood of rising higher
How had the emperor Vespasian protected the jobs of some of the plebs?
Rejected a proposal for a labor saving device that would haul columns to the capitol (which would put some plebs out of work)
In the 1980's (I think), John Molloy published a book called Dress for Success, in which he explained how, by dressing as if one were already wealthy and successful and by driving a car that conveyed high status, one could advance further in business and professional life. Look up the term sumptuary law. Give the definition below. Why might a society have sumptuary laws (they were also used in the middle ages)? What Roman sumptuary laws, explained in the reading, made it difficult, if not impossible, to use Mr. Molloy's precepts to advance in Roman society?
Sumptuary law is a law that limits a person's rights to owning lavish things, generally based on social class. Sumptuary laws reinforce barriers between social class. Sumptuary laws like the toga stripes and the gold ring keep Romans who aren't senators/equites from dressing like one
In the 1990's two former college professors wrote a book called The Millionaire Next Door, in which they investigated the spending habits and lifestyles of wealthy people and compared them to the spending habits and lifestyles of people who worked hard to appear wealthy but in fact were living from paycheck to paycheck. Which group could have been admitted to the senatorial or equestrian classes? Why?
Appear wealthy: equites, they have to work
Actually wealthy: senators, they didn't work, $ in the family
It was sometimes the case that equites were wealthier than senatores. What rule would have allowed this to happen?
Equites could do business, senators only got money off of the land. Sometimes equites turned down offer to become senator in order to keep business.
Translate Jupiter Optimus Maximus. In Catullus 64, Ariadne addresses Jupiter as Jupiter Omnipotens. Translate.
Jupiter the best, the greatest
Jupiter the all powerful
To which deities was the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus dedicated? What does each of them represent in the Roman pantheon? What is a pantheon (the concept, not the building)? From what language does it come?
Jupiter (sky), Juno(marriage), Minerva (wisdom)
Group of all gods of a religion
Who was the most important Stoic philosopher in Rome at this time? What was his background (not just his nationality)?
Epictetus, a Greek and former slave of Epaphroditus
In the second paragraph on page 249, the writer implies three stages in the development of Roman religion. Enumerate and explain.
1. Greek sky gods.
2. Agricultural gods/numina: spirits like terminus
3. Gods from conquered territories
How does this article define "mystery religion"? From where did they come to Rome?
Religion from the east which offered hope of life after death and required initiation ceremonies known only to believers
Who was Bacchus? What were his other names? What might he have represented to the Romans, so that his worship was temporarily banned during the Republic?
Liber, Dionysus. Roman god of wine/the vine. He represented getting drunk and lax behavior, which was why he was banned (contrary to the stoics)
In what country did Mithraism begin? What were the characteristics of Mithras? Translate Sol Invictus Mithras.
Persia, light, truth and justice, antagonist of evil, loyalty and fraternity, appealed to soldiers. Mithras the invincible sun.
How far did Mithraism spread? Who were its typical adherents?
All across the empire, soldiers and wealthy businessmen
During the reign of Augustus, what was the general official Roman attitude toward Jews and Christians? When and why did this change?
They were tolerated. Tiberius and Claudius expelled them for trying to convert people, Nero blamed Christians for the great Fire
How did the Romans first classify Christians? Why would this have happened?
As Jews, both from Judaea and monotheistic
At what points in the history of Rome were Jews and Christians persecuted? Why did Nero persecute them? What persecution in more recent history does this resemble?
Under Claudius, Tiberius: expelled for trying to convert people
Under Nero: blamed for the great fire
How does the article sum up the main belief of Stoicism?
Virtue before pleasure
Summarize in your own words what Epictetus had to say about...
The real reason people are upset by events
Whether you should make an effort to change your situation in life if you don't like it
They aren't upset by events, just by people's opinions of the events
You must play the part you are given in life
Why were the Stoics often at odds with the emperor?
Didn't like one man rule or hereditary rule
Look up "stoic" in an English dictionary. What does it mean today? What is the origin of the word?
Able to go through hardships without complaint
From Greek "stoa" (porch)
Define/ID: ludi, ludi scaenici, ludi circenses, ludi Romani, factiones, mappa, spina, meta, munera, venationes, naumachiae, amphitheatrum flavium, triumphator, porta triumphalis
games, theatrical shows, chariot races, oldest Roman games, teams, napkin starting pistol, platform for egg lowering, turning point, funeral gifts- gladiator shows, hunts, naval battles, Flavian Amphitheater, triumphant general that led victory parade- highest honor, gates of victory- triumph entered city through it
How old were the Ludi Romani? This places them at least before what year?
Time of the kings, before 509
In the time of Domitian, what was the status of formal plays? When they were produced, what was the style?
not very common, lavish but tasteless
Danced and acted all the parts without speaking, accompanied by musician
What was the capacity of the circus maximus?
What was one way fans tried to harm other teams? Give the Latin word and its meaning.
Defixiones, curse tablets
What was the normal number of teams? How were they designated?
4 teams, by color red white green blue
What the normal day's program at the Circus Maximus? What signals were used?
24 races, each roughly 15 minutes long. The mappa was used a starter pistol and seven huge wooden/marble eggs were used to signal each time the lead charioteer completed a lap.
What was the main danger to a charioteer if he crashed? How did he try to ensure his safety?
Being dragged under chariot, he carried a knife to cut himself free
What was the original purpose of gladiatorial shows?
honor the dead
Later they became vehicles for conspicuous consumption. What does this term mean?
show off wealth by spending it, used to curry favor
When did the Amphitheatrum Flavium open? What was its capacity? What do we call it today
80 AD, 50,000, colosseum
What was the highest honor bestowed on a successful military leader? How was this honor later restricted?
triumphator, led triumph
only the emperor later
How and where did a Triumph begin? How did it end?
It began with offering of prayers in the Campus Martius, then entered the city through the port triumphalis, then ended at temple of jupiter with execution of enemy
Explain once again (you first learned this in Stage 6) the new roles (English and Latin) taken on by a former master and a former slave upon the slave's manumission. What was the slave's new status with the government (English and Latin)?
dominus to patronus, servus to cliens/libertus/civis
How did the freedman acquire his two new names?
master's first 2 names, then his own name
What new rights did he acquire?
vote, get married, legally binding wills and business agreements, buy spouse out of slavery
What were the limitations on these rights?
Couldn't be an eques or senator or marry into those, couldn't be in the legions or run in elections
What position of honor was open only to freedmen?
Seviri Augustales (priests of the emperor)
What obligations did a freedman owe to his master?
deference and respect, leave money in his will, accompany at public events, labor/money per year, help in times of need, can't harm master
How does this lead to an additional reason (in addition to rewarding special service) for the master to free the slave?
Service, but don't have to provide food, clothing, etc
What were the new challenges a freedman faced?
prejudice, surviving on his own
What kinds of work might a skilled freedman already be trained for?
secretary, banker, craftsman, teacher, musician, trade, accountant
Why was there little competition for such positions from freeborn Romans?
didn't have the skills
thought it was beneath them
List the rich and/or famous freedmen or any other freedmen you may have read about, both from this section and from your other readings in the Cambridge Latin books.
Epaphroditus, Epictetus, Horace's father, Caecilius's father, Trimalchio, Clemens
To what special group of freedmen did Epaphroditus belong?