Genetics

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Genetics vocabulary

paternal

From the father

haploid

gamete, containing half of the normal amount of chromosomes

diploid

Containing full amount of chromosomes

gamete

Sex cell (oocyte, sperm)

allele

a form of a gene

heterozygous

a genotype containing a dominant and recessive allele (Hh)

recessive

is not present unless both alleles are the same (hh)

autosomes

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

sex linkage

an expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of an individual

mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

homolog

one member of a chromosome pair

meiosis

cell division in which gametes are made

polar body

a packet of extra chromosomes released from the egg when meiosis is finished.

nondisjunction

meiosis in which paired chromosomes fail to separate, can cause trisomies

epistasis

the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene

Down's Syndrome

Also known as trisomy 21, this disease is caused by an extra copy of the 21st chromosome

Romanovs

The Russian royal family affected by hemophilia, a sex-linked genetic disorder

chromatid

one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis

centromere

the region of a chromosome at which chromatids are connected

phenotype

a physical expression of a genotype

genotype

the combination of genes for one or more specific traits

continuous variation

the combined effect of many genes, polygenetics (AaBBCCDD)

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