Locard's Exchange Principle
Whenever two objects come into contact with one another, there is exchange of materials between them
Physical Science Unit
The unit applied principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification nad comparison of crime-scene evidence.
The unit is staffed with biologists and biochemists who identify and perform DNA profiling on dried bloodstains and other body fluids, compare hairs and fibers, and identify and compare botanical materials (wood and plants).
The unit examines firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types.
Document Examination Unit
The unit studies the handwriting and typewriting on questioned documents to ascertain authenticity and/or source.
Bertillon's system of bodily measurements
used for identification of an individual
The unit examines and records physical evidence using highly specialized photographic techiques to make invisible information visible to the naked eye.
The unit examines body fluids and organs to determine the presence or absence of drugs and poisons.
Latent Fingerprint Unit
The unit processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints when they are submitted in conjunction with other laboratory examinations.
The unit uses the polygraph, or lie detector, trained in the techniques of criminal investigation and interrogation.
Voiceprint Analysis Unit
The unit has the skills to tie the voice to a particular suspect.
Crime-Scene Investigation Unit
The unit dispatches specially trained personnel (civilian and/or police) to the crime scene to collect and preserve physical evidence that will later be processed at the crime laboratory.
To meet the Frye standard...
, the court must decide whether the questioned procedure, technique, or principle is "generally accepted" by a meaningful segment of the scientific community.
An individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson.
The medical dissection and examination of a body in order to determine the cause of death
the medical condition that occurs after death and results in the stiffening of muscle mass.
The medical condition that occurs after death and results in the setting of blood in areas of the body closest to the ground.
Postmortem changes that cause a body to lose heat.
The Life Cycle of the Typical Blowfly
Oviposition, Egg, Larva Stage I, Larva Stage II, Larva Stage III, Larva Stage III Postfeeding, Late and Early Puparium, and Eclosion: Adult Fly Emerges.
A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was first devised by _______.
The Italian scientist ______ devised the first workable procedure for typing dried bloodstains
The comparison microscope became an indispensable tool of firearms examination through the efforts of ______.
Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examination are associated with ______.
Albert S. Osborn
The application of science to law describes ______.
The fictional exploits of ______ excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
The application of science to criminal investigation was advocated by the Austrian magistrate _____.
One of the first functional crmie laboratories was formed in Lyons, France, under the direction of _____.
The transfer of evidence expected to occur when two objects come in contact with one another was a concept first advocated by the forensic scientist ______.
The first forensic laboratory in the United States was created in 1923 by the ______ Police Department.
The state of ______ is an excellent example of a geographical area in the United States that was created a system of integrated regional and satellite laboratories.
In contrast to the United States, Britain's crime laboratory system in characterized by a national system of ______ laboratories.
The increasing demand for ____ analyzes has been the single most important factor in the recent expansion of crime laboratory services in the United States.
Four important federal agencies offering forensic services are _____, _____, _____, and _____.
FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration laboratories, Laboratories of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, U.S. Postal Inspection Service
A decentralized system of crime laboratories currently exists in the United States under the auspices of various governmental agencies at the ____, ____, ____, and _____ levels of government.
federal, state, county, municipal
The application of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the _____ unit of a crime laboratory.
The examination of blood, hairs, fibers, and botanical materials is conducted in the ___ unit of a crime laboratory.
The examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the ___ unit.
The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is a function of the ____ unit.
The ____ unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of a crime to retrieve evidence for laboratory examination.
The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of _____.
Frye v. United States
In the case of ____, the Supreme Court rules that in assessing the admissibility of new and unique scientific test the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of "general acceptance."
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
True or False: The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael restricted the "gatekeeping" role of a trial judge only to scientific testimony. ____
A Florida case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide discretion that the trial judge has in matters of scientific inquiry is ______.
Coppolino v. State
A(n) _____ is a person who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will help the court determine the truth of the matter at issue.
True or False: The expert witness's courtroom demeanor may play an important role in deciding what weight the court will assign to his or her testimony. _____
True or False: The testimony of an expert witness incorporates his or her personal opinion relating to a matter he or she has either studied or examined. _____
The ability of the investigator to recognize and collect crime-scene evidence properly depends on the amount of ___ received from the crime laboratory.
When ____ sets in after death, the skin appears dark blue or purple in the areas closest to the ground.
True or False: One method for approximating the time of death is to determine body temperature.
the ability to identify a concept or problem, to organize information for decision making, to establish criteria for evaluation, and to draw appropriate conclusions
deriving the consequences from the facts using a series of logical steps
a statement or assertion of information that can be verified
relating to the application of scientific knowledge to legal questions
conclusions drawn from assumptions and known facts
what a person perceives using his or her senses
personal belief founded on judgment rather than on direct experience on knowledge
interpreting information received from the senses
chain of custody
the documented and unbroken transfer of evidence
evidence used to imply a fact but not prove it directly
material that connects an individual or thing to a certain group
a multidisciplinary approach in which scientific and legal professionals work together to solve a crime
a hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed through its commission
evidence that proves an alleged fact, such as an eyewitness account of a crime
the first police officer to arrive at a crime scene
a kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing
a folded paper used to hold trace evidence
primary crime scene
the location where the crime took place
secondary crime scene
a location other than the primary crime scene, but that is in some way related to the crime, where evidence is found
small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene
a person who has seen someone or something and can communicate these facts
The Seven S's of Crime-Scene Investigation
Securing the Scene, Separating the Witness, Scanning the Scene, Seeing the Scene, Sketching the Scene, Searching for Evidence, and Securing and Collecting Evidence
How to be a Good Observer (1st step)
1. We know that we aren't naturally inclined to pay attention to all of the details of our surroundings.
How to be a Good Observer (2nd step)
2. We know that we are naturally inclined to filter out unimportant information.
How to be a Good Observer (3rd step)
3. We know that we are naturally inclined to interpret what we see, to look for patterns, and make connections.
How to be a Good Observer (4th step)
4. We know that our memories are faulty.
Define and distinguish forensic science and criminalistics
Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom
Areas of inquiry
1. Whether the scientific technique or theory can be tested; 2.Whether the technique or theory has been subject to peer review and publication; 3.The technique's potential rate of error; 4. Existence and maintenance of standards controlling the technique's operation; 5.Whether the scientific theory or method has attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant scientific community.