Chapter 2: Earthquakes

28 terms by dentm 

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secrest1195@members.wikispaces.com MangaMan7@members.wikispaces.com

stress

a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume

tension

stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

compression

squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

shearing

stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement

normal fault

a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust

hanging wall

the block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault

footwall

The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.

reverse fault

a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust

strike-slip fault

A type of fault in which ricks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion.

anticline

an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust

syncline

a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust

plateau

a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

earthquake

the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface

focus

The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

epicenter

the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

P wave

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.

surface wave

a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface

Mercalli scale

a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place

magnitude

The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

Richter scale

a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves

seismograph

a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth

moment magnitude scale

a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

seismogram

the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph

friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

aftershock

an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

tsunami

a large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

base-isolated buidling

A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake

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