# Chapter 2: Earthquakes

### 28 terms by dentm

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### stress

a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume

### tension

stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

### compression

squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

### shearing

stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement

### normal fault

a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust

### hanging wall

the block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault

### footwall

The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.

### reverse fault

a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust

### strike-slip fault

A type of fault in which ricks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion.

### anticline

an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust

### syncline

a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust

### plateau

a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

### earthquake

the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface

### focus

The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

### epicenter

the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

### P wave

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.

### surface wave

a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface

### Mercalli scale

a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place

### magnitude

The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

### Richter scale

a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves

### seismograph

a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth

### moment magnitude scale

a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

### seismogram

the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph

### friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

### liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

### aftershock

an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

### tsunami

a large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

### base-isolated buidling

A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake

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