A great flowering of culture, toward the end of the middle ages, that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
Influenced by the styles and techniques of ancient Greece and Rome.
A philosophy that emphasizes the worth and potential of all individuals and tries to balance religious faith with belief in the power of the human mind.
A person who supports the arts or other activities by supplying money for them.
Relating to earthly life rather than to religion or spiritual matters.
The name given by the Europeans to the Americas.
The official teachings of a religion or church.
The buying and selling of spiritual or holy things.
The office, or position, of pope as head of the catholic church.
Beliefs that contradict the official teachings of a religion or church; one who holds such beliefs is called a heretic.
A person who works to spread a religion and make converts.
A particular religious grouping within a larger faith. Ex: Lutheranism is a denomination of Christianity.
An act of disrespect towards God.
A government or state in which God is the supreme ruler and religious officials govern in God's name.
A grant bought from the Catholic Church that releases a person from punishment for sins.
Characteristic of the Middle Ages.
A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside.
The regions of the world that were known to Europeans before the discovery of the Americas.
Priesthood of All Believers
Luther's idea that every believer had the ability to read and interpret the Bible.
Justification by Faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation.
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
The Council of Trent
An assembly of high church officials summoned by Catholic Church to deal with Counter Reformation.
The Society of Jesus
The Jesuits wanted to eliminate heretics and return to the strictest most basic ways of Christianity - were against the protestants and tried to convert many people.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born).
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion.
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the Protestant Reformation, and developed the Lutheran Church.
The 95 Theses
Written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. They were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences and in essence promoted Protestantism.
Started by King Henry VIII. It was also known as the Church of England. This began in about 1558. This religion believes that the English monarch is the head of the church, salvation by faith alone, bible is the sole source of revealed truth, worship based on ritual and preaching, and believers interpret the Bible using tradition and reason.
King of England. When his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's broke from the Catholic Church and embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.