1960-1991 Study Guide

43 terms by GAL_FFMS

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New Frontier

Kennedy's plan for eliminating poverty in America, called for a government-run
healthcare system for the elderly (Medicare), also included the creation of the Peace Corps and a space program (NASA)

Bay of Pigs Invasion

secret CIA plan to overthrow Castro using Cuban refugees, was a total failure, made Kennedy look weak, strengthened Soviet ties to Cuba, and made Kennedy distrust the CIA

Cuban Missile Crisis

After blockading Cuba, Kennedy demanded the Soviets remove their nuclear missiles from Cuba in exchange for an American promise never to invade Cuba and to
remove our missiles from Turkey

Berlin Crisis

After Kruschchev demanded the Allies leave West Berlin, Kennedy went to Berlin and promised that America would defend them if the Soviets invaded

JFK Assassination

Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Texas, leading to controversy over Oswald's motives and whether or not he was part of a conspiracy; the immediate swearing in of Vice President Lyndon Johnson

Great Society

President Johnson's name for his domestic policies and new programs that he believed would continue Kennedy's ideals for eliminating poverty, was unfortunately
overshadowed by his overzealous support of the Vietnam War

Medicare

healthcare plan that would help senior citizens with their medical expenses

Medicaid

another healthcare plan that helped families in need, not just senior citizens

Civil Rights Act 1964

Outlawed all racial segregation and discrimination in the United States; overturned the "separate but equal" ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

After North Vietnamese boats allegedly fired on American boats in international waters, the Congress gave Johnson the power to send hundreds of thousands of American troops into Vietnam

Vitenam War

war against Communist North Vietnam and corrupt but US-backed South Vietnam that the United States felt a need to get involved in to protect democracy, was ultimately a failure and the first major US defeat in a war, and was widely opposed by citizens

Domino Theory

The belief that if one nation fell to communism, others would soon follow,
particularly in Southeast Asia, America feared that if Vietnam became Communist, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand would follow

Anti-War Protests

became widespread during the Vietnam War, mostly organized by students but had support from all age groups, based on the belief that the United States had no business in Vietnam to begin with

Counterculture

new style and way of thinking by young people, who often did marijuana and LSD, and developed utopian communities in nature, were brought to attention during events such as the Montgomery Pop Festival and Woodstock; although hippies were harmless and peaceful, their drug use and unusual appearance were seen as a threat to the older generation

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, developed as a response to the Soviet's launching of the satellite Sputnik as an attempt to top their space efforts, eventually they succeeded in sending men to the moon

Silent Majority

unspecified large group of people who do not express their opinions publicly, in this case these people agreed that the counterculture and new youth culture in general was immoral, and during Nixon and Reagan's administration became the Moral Majority and were more vocal in their opinions

Dètente

easing of tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States

SALT Agreement

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, refers to the issue of armament control between the US and USSR, limited the number of nuclear weapons developed by both nations

Vietnamization

Nixon's plan to hand over the Vietnam War to the people of South Vietnam, once America did that, the North Vietnamese army easily took over the South, ending the
Vietnam war and making Vietnam a Communist nation, therefore making the war a failure to America

Watergate

Several of Nixon's aids broke in, bugged, and stole files from the Democratic
headquarters at the Watergate Hotel; this scandal eventually led to the resignation of Nixon, the only president to ever resign

Oil Crisis

In response to American support for Israel, OPEC (dominated by Arab nations) cut their petroleum supply to the US causing huge economic problems and leading to Americans killing each other over gasoline

Stagflation

combination of the terms "stagnation" and "inflation", refers to the failing economy
during Reagan's presidency

Pardon of Nixon

Gerald Ford's first order of business as President when he ordered that Nixon not be charged in any crimes in the Watergate scandal.

Affirmative Action

effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members of minority groups and women

Camp David Peace Accords

peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, making Egypt the first nation to recognize Israel as an independent nation, major achievement for Jimmy Carter

Iran Hostage Crisis

for 444 days, American diplomats were held hostage after Iran had a revolution which removed the American-backed dictator, destroyed Carter's chances for reelection,
the Iran government did not respect Carter, and so they waited until Reagan's election
to release the hostages as a slap in the face to Carter

Conservative Revolution

organization of Reagan's Republican followers, the Moral Majority, who openly opposed the youth counterculture, drugs, music, and ideals

Reaganomics

Reagan's policy of "trickle down" economics that consisted of giving money to wealthy business owners who would then invest in new businesses which would develop new consumer products, increasing the income of the developers of these products (the working class)

JFK

On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, he was killed by an assassin's bullets as his
motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas. He was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die

Lyndon Johnson

He succeeded to the presidency following the assassination of John Kennedy, completed Kennedy's term and was elected President in his own right, winning by a large margin in the 1964 Presidential election

Richard Nixon

He served as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency. A member of the Republican Party, he was the only President to resign from office.

Ford

As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th
Amendment (after the resignation of Spiro Agnew), when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the only President of the United States who was never elected President or Vice-President.

Carter

is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office.

Conservatives

people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change

New Right

alliance of conservative groups to support conservative ideas

Trickle Down Economics

economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers

Deregulation

reducing governments control

Ho Chi Minh

North Vietnam communist leader

Voting Rights Act

ban poll tax and illiteracy tests

Jim Crow Laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern states

Plessy v. Fergusson

the Supreme Court case that decided that seperate-but-equal was not violating the 14th amendment

abolished slavery, rights of citizens, right to vote

13th,14th,15th Amendment

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, to abolish segregation and discrimination, and to gain civil rights for African Americans

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