Political Socialization: 3 Principles
Primacy Principle: refers to the fact that what is learned first is often lodged most firmly in one's mind
Structuring Principle: refers to the tendency of earlier learning to structure later learning
Dramatic Political Transformation=Age-Cohort Tendency: holds that a significant break in the pattern of political socialization is almost always concentrated among young citizens
Agents of Socialization
Family, School, Peers, Mass Media, Political Leaders and Institutions, Church and Religion, Major Life Events
How different affiliations affect the way we see the world and think about politics
Gender (Care Ethics), Sexual Orientation, Race (OJ Verdict), Educational Attainment, Class, Regions (North vs South)
Political Activities (various)
voting, joining political parties and interest groups, writing to elected officials, demonstrations, giving money to candidates, keeping blogs, managing campaigns, attending rallies, buttons/pins, reading newspaper/watching news (passive political participation)
Voter Turnout in US
The people either do not like the people in the election and do not participate or they feel they do not care or know enough to vote.
Election process and registration is horrible to go through
we have so many elections
have a weak party system
In the US, individuals registered to vote must registers with the state election board before they are actually allowed to vote
practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or face punitive measures such as community service, fines, or imprisonment
"Forced to be free"
Motor-Voter Registration Act (1993)
Requires states to allow citizens to register to vote when they apply for a driver's license or have other contact with state agencies, such as for unemployment or welfare benefits. Has not dramatically increased overall voter registration. Was opposed by Republicans because they feared Democrats would increase their voter registration advantage. Was passed by Democratic Congress but vetoed by Pres. G. H. W. Bush; passed again and signed by Pres. Clinton in 1993.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Oregon uses this method=> voter turnout is 84%; convenient and cheaper
Voting Rights Act of 1965 = Johnson Administration
Section 2: Prohibited use of voting practices or procedures that denied or abridged the right to vote "on account of race/color"
Section 5: prohibited states from replacing their registration tests with other, equally discriminatory voting practices
King v Chapman et. al
A barber and minister from Muscogee county sued the county democratic executive committee for denying him the right to vote in the party's primary.
the circuit court of appeals found that the rules of Georgia's Democratic party, which restricted voting in primary elections to whites only, violated the equal protection guarantee of the 14th amendment
..., delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule
US political campaigns are party oriented politics in that they compete across the country election after election; they rely on volunteers
Individual candidates devise their own strategies, choose their own issues, and form their own campaign organizations; rely on media
The emergence of the interenet has led to negative campaign commercials, creative productions, testimonials, documentaries, talking heads, etc...
Signaler Role of Media
media alerts us of the development of the news (shootings, mass murder, earthquake)
Common-Carrier Role of Media
Bridge between politicians/political leaders and the people
Watchdog Role of Media
Watch politicians, bureaucrats to make sure they don't abuse their political power
Agenda Setting = Selection Bias
the power of the media to bring attention to particular issues and problems
power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted
Problems with Media
accuracy, diversity, fairness, neutrality, oppenness, censorship, regional and racial balance, institutional bias
assertion, bandwagon, card stacking, glittering generalities, false dilemma, lessser of the two evils, name-calling, pinpointing the enemy, plain folk, testimonials, transfer
Congress: 4 Theories of Representation
Trustee View- acts according to his/her views
Instructed Delegate View- mirrors public sentiment
Partisan View- acts according to political parties
Politico Style- anything goes
Congress Qualifications (Senate/House)
at least 30 years old, US citizen for 9 years, from state you are representing. at least 25 years old, US citizen for 7 years, from state you're representing.
act of exchanging favors for mutual gain
legislation designed to make gov't benefits, including jobs and projects used as political patronage flow to particular district or state
Legislation that unfairly benefits the few at the expense of the many.
-Tax money goes to districts that do not need it.
-Federal programs are watered down in order to please everyone.
-Federal programs are doomed to fail b/c they are too broad and lack adequate resources
Ex. $55K for a tattoo removal program in CA
Congress: What are they afraid of?
Scandals, Strong Challengers, Redistricting
a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
How a bill becomes a law
1. Introduce bill in Senate and House
2. Referral to Committees
3. Reports on bill
4. Rules Committee and Scheduling
5. Floor Debate
7. Conference Committee
8. Presidential Action
9. Overriding a Veto
a legislator who gives long speeches in an effort to delay or obstruct legislation that he (or she) opposes
mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate/filibuster
Congress: Leadership Structure
Senate: Pro tem: Serves in the absence of Vice President
House of Reps: Speaker of the House: traditionally long time member of the majority party risen in rank and influence
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Congress: Powers Expressed and Implied
Article 1, Section 8; budget making, lawmaking, oversees actions of bureaucracy, confirms range of presidential apointments, impeachment, declaring war, rejecting president's ideas/agendas
natural-born citizen, age 35, lived in US for 14 years
a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
allows you to see the differences between candidates, candidates agree on the number and location of debates before hand, candidates have a big impact on the debates
270 out of 538 to win presidency
Bush v Gore
this case ruled in favor of Bush by saying that recounting the votes in certain counties of Florida was unconstitutional because of equal protection clause in 14th Amendment
Source of Power
US Constitution: Article II;
Appointments, treaties, Commander-in-Chief.
Recess Appointments, Convene Congress, Receive Ambassadors, Pardon Power
Inherent Executive Powers
Veto, Dealing with National Crisis, Mobilize Troops
War Powers Resolution (1973)
to create a procedure for both branches to share in decision making
Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors
Impeachment (majority vote in the House)
Conviction (2/3 vote in the Senate)
House investigates "crime" and if they find there is- it votes for impeachment (simple majority votes) Senate then creates court of law and tries the President for charged offense After trial, Senate votes for removal (2/3)
a president's authority to reject a bill passed by Congress; may only be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house
Bureaucracy: 3 Characteristics
Executive Leadership System
Bureaucracy: Executive Depts
Bureaucracy: Independent Executive Agencies
Bureaucracy: Independent Regulatory Agencies
Bureaucracy: Govt Corporation
Bureaucracy: Enabling Legislation
Dept of Homeland Security
Red Tape (Complex Regulations/Procedures)
law concerned with private wrongs against individuals
law concerned with public wrongs against society
refers to the body of law that deals with relationships between individuals and the government and governmental agencies
legislation that limits the nature of personal injury lawsuits, either by restricting the type of suit, who can be sued, or the amount of damages
Changing laws to make it harder for people to sue when they have been wronged. It is advocated by groups that believe that too many frivolous lawsuits are filed in our society.
filed by one or more people on behalf of a larger group of people who are all affected by the same situation
The body of law developed from judicial decisions in English and U.S. courts, not attributed to a legislature.
wage scale paying newer workers a lower wage than others already on the job
Supreme Court Decision Making
amicus curiae brief
a brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it;
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
a statement that presents the views of the majority of supreme court justices regarding a case
a signed opinion in which one or more justices disagree with the majority view
Writ of Certiorari
a common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case
Supreme Court Justices
appointed for life to the nation's highest court; maintain independence from congress and president;, 8 Associates, 1 Chief.
runs the bureaucracy
This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
strict and literal interpretation of Constitution