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Chapters 10-20

Patron

a person who provides financial support for the arts

Humanism

intellectual movement that focuses on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues

Engraving

art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid

Vernacular

everyday language of ordinary people

Utopia

ideal society

Medici

bankers who were the lead patrons of the Renaissance

Leonardo

painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper

Michelangelo

This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling

Machiavelli

Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes

Castiglione

Wrote The Book of the Courtier

Durer

a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)

Erasmus

(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected.

Gutenberg

started printing press

Shakespeare

English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers that wrote 37 plays (1564-1616)

Luther

started the Protestant Reform

Indulgences

pardon for sins committed during a person's lifetime

Recant

to give up one's view or beliefs

Predestination

idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvaion

Theocracy

government run by religious leaders

Annul

to cancel or invalidate

Calvin

Protestant leader whose doctrine included the concept of "predestination."

Henry VIII

British King that stood against the Protestant Revolt

Elizabeth

Queen of England that made England a firmly Protestant nation

Mary Tudor

Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.

Ignatius

founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)

Heliocentric

based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe

Hypothesis

possible explanation

Scientific Method

method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis

Gravity

force that tends to pull one mass or object to another

Chemistry

the study of compounds

Galileo

Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)

Boyle

father of modern chemistry

Descartes

developed the scientific method

Paul IV

Pope that placed added restrictions on Jews

Charles V

King of the Holy Roman Empire that banned Jews from Spanish colonies in the American colonies

Conquistadors

Spanish conquerors

Immunity

natural protection

Alliance

formal agreement between two more more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense

Civil War

war fought between two groups of people in the same nation

Viceroys

representative who ruled on of Spain's provinces in the Americas in the king's name

Mestizos

people of Native American and European descent

Mulattoes

people of African and European descent

Encomienda

right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans

Peons

workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt

Plantations

large estate run by an owner or overseer and worked by laborers who live there

Peninsular

member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas

Creoles

an American-born descendant of Spanish settlers

Privateers

pirate

Missionary

someone sent on a religious mission

Compact

an agreement

Revenues

money taken in through taxes

Mayflower Compact

compact that set out guidelines for the governing of the North American colony

Treaty of Paris

treaty that ensured British dominance in North America

Repeal

to cancel

Monopoly

exclusive control or possession of something

Triangle trade

trade between Europe, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves

Inflation

sharp increase in the amount of money avaliable

Mercantilism

policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported

Tariff

taxes on imported goods

Entrepreneur

enterprising merchant

Constantinople

Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.

Icon

holy image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

Ottomans

type of Turks that defeated the Christians of Constantinople in 1453

Steppe

dry grassland

Boyar

landowning noble

Czar

title of the ruler of the Russian Empire

Mongols

people of Ghengis Khan

Scurvy

disease caused by the lack of vitamin C in someone's diet

Astrolabe

instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars

Cartographer

map maker

Caravel

improved type of sailing ship in the 1400s

Circumnavigate

to travel all the way around the Earth

Henry the Navigator

King of Portugal who started the Age of Exploration

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

Ferdinand

King at the time of Columbus' voyage

Vasco de Gama

A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean

Alexander I

czar of Russia who wanted to restore the Kingdom of Poland

Magellan

First to circumnavigate the globe (at least his surviving ship did)

Cabot

Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)

Hudson

English navigator who discovered the Hudson River

Pinta

one of the three ships used by Columbus

Henry VII

The first Tudor king that worked to establish a strong monarchical government

Matrilineal

from the mother's lineage

Stupas

large domelike Buddhist shrine

Padis

fields

Outpost

distant military station

Sepoy

Indian soldier who served in an army set up by the French or English East India company

Isolationism

policy of limited involvement in world affairs

Mutiny

revolt on a boat or ship

Divine right

believing that authority to rule came directly from God

Armada

Spanish fleet of ships

Intendant

royal official that collected taxes

Levee

means "rising"

Dissenter

Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England

Habeas Corpus

principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

Elector

one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor

Mercenary

paid soldiers

Depopulation

reduction in population

Westernization

adoption of western ideas

Partition

division

Limited Monarchy

government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power

Social Contract

an agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society

Natural Law

laws that govern human nature

Philosophe

means "lover of wisdom"

Physiocrat

Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics

Laissez Faire

policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

Censorship

restriction on access to ideas and information

Salon

informal social gathering at which writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged ideas

Rococo

personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s

Enlightened Despot

absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social change

Baroque

ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s

Voltaire

French Revolutionary writer

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a social contract

Sebastian Bach

German born artist that wrote over 1000 compositions and learned many instruments at youth

Frederick II

King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.

Rousseau

believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property

Hobbes

wrote Leviathan. Thought human nature was nasty, brutal, & short. He said government was needed to provide jurisdiction for the people and that all rebellions must be quashed.

Robinson Crusoe

the hero of Daniel Defoe's novel about a shipwrecked English sailor who survives on a small tropical island

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism

Catherine the Great

This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia

Joseph II

This was the ruler of the Hapsburgs that granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom

Popular Sovereignty

states that all government power comes from the people

Federal Republic

government in which power is divided between the federal or national government and the states

Loyalist

those who supported Britain

Cabinet

handful of parliamentary advisers

Prime Minister

head of the cabinet

Bourgeoisie

middle class

Deficit spending

a government's spending more money than it takes in

Faction

a small group

Emigre

nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces

Republic

system of government in which officials are chosen by the people

Suffrage

the right to vote

Nationalism

pride in one's own country

Secular

worldly

Annex

to add outright

Plebiscite

ballot in which voters say yes or no

Legitimacy

principle in which monarchies were restored in France

Napoleon

French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

Waterloo

the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat

Guerilla warfare

fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids

Reign of Terror

This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed

Bastille

The famous armory whose storming is often marked as the beginning of the French Revolution

Abdicate

to give up a high office

Wellington

British general and statesman that defeated Napoleon at Waterloo

Guillotine

instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles

Prussia

former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland

1st Estate

consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes. They were radically divided.

2nd Estate

Estate made up of the nobles

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