Chapter 3

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Which area of science in voles the study of the organs and systems of the body?

Anatomy

What three basic parts of cells are found in all human cell ?

Neucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane

The control center of cell activities is called the:

Neucleus

The outer surface of the cell that encloses the protoplasm is known as the :

Cell membrane

Most of the activities or production of the cell take place in the :

Cytoplasm

Which of the following NOT an example of metabolisms?

Controlling the basic functions and activities of the cell

The process of building up larger moleclules from small ones is:

Anabolism

The release of energy within a cell necessary for the performance of specific body functions is called:

Catabolism

What is the role of epith tissue?

Cover and protect body surfaces and internal organs

Which type of tissue coordinates body functions in addition to carrying messages to and from the brain and spinal cord?

Nerve

A sparate body structure composed of cells of two or more different tissues is a(n):

Organ

A group of body structures that, together, perform one or more vital functions of the body is a (n):

System

The skin makes up the :

Integumentary system

Which system is the physical foundation of the body?

Skeletal system

The point at which two or more bones are joined together is called a:

Joint

Osteology is the area of science that is the study of :

Bones

What is the technical term for bones:

Os

Long bones are found in the :

Legs

Bones is the hardest structure in the body and is composed of 1/3 organic matter and :

2/3 mineral matter

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

Sending and receiving body messages

Which body system has the function to give the body shape and strength?

Skeletal system

All of the following are bones of the cranium EXCEPT:

Metacarpal

Mary is performing a scalp massage on a client. Which of the following bones would be most affected by the massage Mary is offering?

Frontal

Which system has the function of surrounding and protecting internal organs?

Skeletal system

The parietal bones form the:

Crown and upper sides of the head

The two bones located on either side of the head above the ears and below the parietal bones are the:

Temporal bones

What is the largest bone of the facial skeleton?

Mandible

The upper cheek and bottom of the eye socket are formed by the malar, also called:

Zygomatic

The smallest bones of the facial skeleton that form the front part of the inner, bottom wall of the eye socket are the:

Lacrimal

The seven bones that the top part of the spinal column are called:

Cervical vertebrae

The large, flat bone extending from the midle of the back upward to the joint where it attaches to the clavicle is called the :

Scapula

The bone located on the little finger side of the lower forearm is the:

Ulna

The eight carpals held together with ligaments make up the :

Wrist

The five long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand are the :

Metacarpals

Myology is the study of the :

Muscles

One function of the muscular system includes supporting the :

Skeletal system

The muscles that respond to commands regulated by will are referred to as:

Striated

Which type of muscle is responsible for permitting a person to change the pace from walking to running?

Voluntary

The non-moving portion of the muscle attached to bone or other fixed muscle is the :

Origin

What tissue contracts when stimulated to produce motion?

Muscular

Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the :

Insertion to origin

The epicranius is formed by two muscles called the frontalis and the :

Occipitalis

The muscle that controls the eyebrows by drawing them in and downward is the:

Corrugator

What muscle cirles the eyesocket and closes the eyelid ?

Orbicularis oculi

Which muscle is located between the eyebrows across the bridge of the nose and is responsible for drawing down and wrinkling the area across the bridge of the nose ?

Procerus

Which muscle circles the mouth and is responsible for puckering and wrinkling the lip ?

Oris orbicularis

Raising the upper lip is accomplished by which of the following muscles ?

Quadratus labii superioris

What muscle pulls the lower lip down or to the side ?

Quadratus labii inferioris

The coordination of which two muscles enables the body to perform chewing (mastication)?

Temporlis and masseter

Which muscles are used when nodding "yes" or "no"?

Sternocleido mastoideus

Drawing the head back, rotating the shoulder blades and controlling the swing of the arm are functions controlled by the latissimus dorsi and the:

Trapezius

The muscle that turns the palm of the hand up is the :

Supinator

Which muscle bends the wrist and closes the fingers?

Flexor

Which muscle straightens the fingers and wrist?

Extensor

When a professional cosmetologist performs a massage manipulation, what system is generally directly influenced and stimulated?

Circulatory

When performing high stress activities such as excercise, which system of the body is responsible for maintaining the oxygen supply to the muscles and cells?

Blood-vascular

The heart muscle is entirely encased in a membrane called the:

Pericardium

The lower chambers of the heart include the :

Left and right ventricle

What is the sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishment and oxygen to all parts of the body?

Blood

Cells that fight bacteria and other foreign substances are called leukocytes or :

White blood cells

What component of blood gives the body the ability to stop the flow of blood when protective layer of the skin is broken?

Thrombocytes

The fluid part of the blood is called:

Plasma

Thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart are:

Arteries

Which vessels are dark in color because they carry oxygen-poor blood?

Veins

Which arteries supply blood to the face, head and neck?

Common carotid arteries

The occipital artery supplies blood to the:

Back of the head

Which artery supplies blood to the lower portion of the face, including the mouth and nose?

External maxillary

Which artery supplies the sides of the nose with blood?

Angular

The chin and lower lip are supplied with blood by which artery?

Submental

Which artery supplies blood to the lower lip?

Inferior labial

Which smaller branch of the external maxillary artery supplies blood to the upper lip and septum?

Superior labial

Which artery supplies to the crown and sides of the head?

Parietal

Which artery supplies blood to parts of the forehead and eyes?

Supraorbital

The brain, spinal cord, spinal and cranial nerves make up the:

Central nervous system

Which of the following term describes the largest nerve tissue in the human body?

Brain

What structure filters out toxic substances, like bacteria, and adds antibodies to he lymph fluid?

Lymph nodes

Which body system may display localized swelling as a result of an infection?

Lymph-vascular

The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and the:

Autonomic nervous system

Located at the end of each axon and responsible for sending messages away from the nerve cell in the form of nerve impulses is a:

Nerve terminal

Another name for a nerve cell is :

Neuron

Which of the following list of components works in harmony to receive and interpret stimuli and sends the resulting impulses to the appropriate tissues, muscles and organs?

Brain, spinal cord and nerves

Which nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles?

Efferent

The trifacial nerve is also known as the:

Fifth cranial nerve

The cranial nerve responsible for transmitting facial sensations to the brain is the :

Trifacial

Which of the following terms is the main nerve branch to the top one-third of the face?

Ophthalmic

The primary motor nerve of the face is the:

Facial nerve

A division of the ophthalmic branch that effects the upper eyelids, eyebrow, forehead and scalp is the :

Supraorbital

Which nerve extends to the lower eyelids, side of the noses, upper lip and mouth?

Infraorbital

What branch of the facial nerve extends to the upper muscles of the cheek?

Zygomatic

Which of the following nerves control the mouth muscles oris orbicularis, quadratus labii superioris and mentalis?

Buccal

What branch of the facial nerve extends to the muscles of the temple, the side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid and upper cheek?

Temporal

Which branch of the cervical nerve extends into the side and front of the neck to the breastbone?

Cervical cutaneous

Which nerve extends down the little finger side of the arm and into the palm of the hands?

Ulnar

Which nerve extends down the thumb side of the arm into the palm of the hand?

Radial

Jane, a skin care client, comments after a facial with massage service that her tight fatigued muscles now feel relaxed and smoothed. Which of the following statements describes what caused this effect?

Stimulation of sensitive nerve tissues

Why is peristalsis important in the overall functioning of the digestive system?

Propels food down the esophagus

The gastrointestinal system includes all of the following EXCEPT:

Lymph nodes

Why is the respiratory system important to the functioning of the body?

Inhalation of oxygen

Breathing through the nose is healthier that breathing through the mouth because the nose:

Contains mucus membranes that filter out dust

Which system is comprised of glands that manufacture chemical substances called hormones?

Endocrine

Light, heat, chemical and magnetic changes are all produced by:

Electricity

Which of the following materials does NOT allow a current to pass through it?

Alcohol

An ampere is a unit of electric:

Strength

How many milliamperes equal one ampere?

1,000

A volt is a unit of electric:

Pressure

A unit of electrical resistance is called a(n):

Ohm

A measure of how much electric energy is being used is known as a :

Watt

A constant electric current flowing in one direction is called a(n):

Direct current

Which of the following devices breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs?

Circuit breaker

Which of the following steps should NOT be followed to break the circuit when a person comes in contact with an electric current?

Touch the person to ground the circuit

The application of special currents (or modalities) that have a variety of effects on the skin is called:

Electrotherapy

When performing an electrotherapy procedure, what apparatus or current conductor is used to bring the current from the appliance to the client's skin?

Electrode

The direct current used in electrotherapy treatments is :

Galvanic

The electrode that is negatively charged during and electrotherapy treatment is known as a(n):

Cathode

What temporary effect will a negative electrode pole produce when applying Galvanic Current during an electrotherapy treatment?

Increase in blood flow

Which of the following is NOT a temporary effect of the positive pole of Galvanic Current?

Softens tissues

Which electrotherapy treatment can cause sebum to be broken down or blackheads to the liquified, as in deep-pore cleansing?

Disincrustation

When using Galvanic Current on clients in a salon what precaution must a cosmetologist take in order to prevent injury to the client?

Do not use over an area having broken capillaries

Faradic Current is used chiefly to cause:

Muscle contractions

Tesla, a high frequency current, is known as the :

Violet-ray

High frequency and alterning current are characteristic of which type of electrotherapy?

Telsa

An alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat is :

High frequency

If the client is holding the active electrode while the cosmetologist manually stimulates the are being treated what method of Tesla Current is being used?

Indirect application

Which of the following will produce a mild, stimulating sensation while using high frequency current?

Slightly separating the electrode from the skin

Treatment with light rays is called:

Light therapy

Which of the following has the longest wavelength?

Infrared rays

Which type of light can be broken into its individual wavelengths by a prism?

Combination

A salon owner wants to mimic natural sunlight as closely as possible in the salon reception area. Which type of light would most likely be used to accomplish this requirement?

Incandescent

Pure heat rays are produced by:

Infrared rays

Which of the following is a benifit of using infrared light during a facial?

Increases circulation

The average distance an infrared lamp should be placed during a facial is about:

30"

Which of the following are also known

Ultraviolet

Which of the following benefits is derived from UV light?

Small does tan the skin

Small doses of ultraviolet light may help the body produce:

Vitamin D

Bacteria that cause skin infection can be killed by:

Ultraviolet light

Before using ultraviolet light on a client, the skin or scalp should be:

Cleaned

The term used to identify anything that occupies space is called:

Matter

Which of the following is NOT an example of a physical change?

Rusting of a nail

Melting ice changes water from a solid to a liquid. Boiling water changes water from a liquid to gas. These are example of what type of change?

Physical

Atoms make up elements. Elements make up matter. Therefore, all matter is comprised of :

Atoms

All matter that is living or more once was living contains carbon and deals with:

Organic chemistry

Basic substances that cannot be broken down into simpler subtances are called

Elements

Two or more of the same atoms joined together by a chemical bond is a(n):

Molecule

Atoms that are the same form a(n):

Element

When two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom, the result is water, which is called a(n):

Compound

Carbo, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen form the basic of :

Amino acids

What is created when amino acids join together in chain?

Proteins?

What make up the primary composition of hair?

Keratin

Which bonds found in the hair can be easily broken by heat or water?

Hydrogen bonds

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