World History Key Terms

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Banana Republics

-US dominance in LA
-controlled industries and fruit co.
-United Fruit Co.
-negative term

Good Neighbor Policy

-FDR's policy
-improve relations between US and LA
-no army force
-no economic influence
-truce between countries

Fascism

-system of government
-strict social and economic control
-leader=dictator
-nationalism, violence, one-party state
-extreme

Mussolini

-Italian Prime Minister
-"Il Duce" (the leader)
-replace government with fascist party members
-rigged elections
-censored press
-intimidation and fear
-est. Fascio de Combattimiento
-led "March on Rome"-Emmanuel steps down

Totalitarian State

-government control over all aspects of life
-economic, social, political, cultural, and intellectual
-higher value of state over individual
-people should be actively involved in the state's goals

Adolf Hitler

-joined German Workers' Party
-created Nazi Party
-became dictator of Germany
-Aryan master race
-fascist dictator
-Beer Hall Putsch
-Mein Kampf
-Enabling Act
-Appeasement
-Holocaust

Beer Hall Putsch

-Nazi attempt to overthrow Munich govt
-leads to Hitler's imprisonment

National Socialist Workers Party

-Nazis
-extreme nationalists
-led by Hitler

Mein Kampf

-"My Struggle"
-written by Hitler in prison
-outlines his beliefs
-Germans are superior
-Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly
-needed lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
-anti-semitism
-social darwinism
-lebensraum

Lebensraum

-"living space"
-need to expand and gain territory
-annexation of Austria
-occupation of Sudetenland
-invasion of Poland

Enabling Act

-legalized Hitler as dictator
-Hitler has absolute power

der Fuhrer

-"the leader"
-term for sole ruler of Germany

Kristallnacht

-"night of shattered glass"
-Nazis kill many Jews
-destroy Jewish businesses
-result of assassination of 3rd secretary

Josef Stalin

-General Secretary of Communist party
-leader and dictator of Russia after Lenin dies
-brings Russia out of Recession
-Russia becomes 2nd leading industrial power
-followed the ideas of Lenin
-rapid industrialization
-Great Purges??
-collectivization
-5 year plan
-turns USSR to totalitarian state

Collectivization

-government takes away private farms
-creates collective farms
-share land in govt. controlled farms
-goal=increase agriculture
-discontent, famine, etc.

5 Year Plan

-plan for economic development
-industrialization
-industry over consumer goods
-??

Luftwaffe

-german air force

Anschluss

-forced unification of Austria and Germany
-result of German Occupation of Austria
-??

Sudetenland

-northwest part of Czechoslovakia
-taken over by Hitler
-Hitler demands that they join Germany
-threatened war

Appeasement

-British and French compromise
-accept Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia
-hoped that meeting his demands would ensure peace
-justify Hitler's reasoning for violating TOV
-??

Blitzkrieg

-"lightning warfare"
-highly mobile and concentrated forces
-surprising and speedy
-supported by planes-massive air attacks
-random surprise attacks

Battle of Britain

-bombardment of British cities by Luftwaffe
-major air attack
-targeting British army
-British intercept radio signal and fight back
-heavy losses
-Hitler forced to back down

Pearl Harbor

-Japs bomb Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
-brings US into WWII
-cripple US navy

Franklin D. Roosevelt

-US president during WWII
-worked with Churchill
-helped strategize DDay invasions

Battle of Midway

-turning point in war in Asia
-US planes destroy 4 Jap. aircraft carriers
-defeat Japanese navy
-establish naval superiority in Pacific
-Douglas MacArthur
-island hopping

Harry Truman

-race to make the atomic bomb
-Hiroshima and Nagasaki
-gave Japanese a warning
-Truman Doctrine?

Hiroshima

-first atomic bomb
-sped up the end of WWII

Nagasaki

-second atomic bomb
-controversy
-enough time to respond from bomb 1?

"Big 3"

-Stalin USSR
-Churchill GB
-Roosevelt USA
-allies during WWII

Tehran conference

-first major meeting of big 3
-discuss military efforts agains Germany

Yalta Conference

-FDR, Churchill, Stalin
-USSR agrees to declare war on Japan
-in return FDR and Churchill promise concession in Manchuria
-Declaration of Liberated Europe
-establish borders in poland
-4 zones in Germany
-tension with USSR

Potsdam Conference

-
-
-
-

"Iron Curtain"

-Churchill's term for division between USSR dom. East and US dom. West
-divided Germany and Europe into 2 hostile camps

Josip Broz (Tito)

-marxist leninist communist
-hated Stalin (independent from him)
-communist resistance movement in Yugoslavia
-est. a communist state

Truman Doctrine

-US will provide $ to countries threatened by communist expansion
-political and military aid

Marshall Plan

-$13 billion for economic recovery of Europe
-helped them gain political independence
-economic aid

George Kennan

-knowledge of soviet affairs
-advocate of containment

Containment

-stop the spread of communism
-use any and all means possible to stop soviet expansion

Berlin Airlift

-moved supplies to West Berlin
-US operation
-during a Soviet blockade

NATO

-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal form alliance with US and Canada
-promise to defend each other in case of an attack

Warsaw Pact

-military alliance of Eastern Europe
-response to NATO
-USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania

Khrushchev

-replaced Malenkov as leader of USSR
-wanted to reduce tensions with the West
-improved living standards of Soviets
-destalinization
-boost economy
-improve agriculture

"Little Stalins"

-eastern europe satellite states
-put into place by Moscow
-Little Stalins were the stalinist type leaders of these satellite states
-eliminated all noncommunist parties
-soviet type 5 year plans

Hungarian Revolution

-led by students and workers
-protests in Budapest
-Rokosi replaced by Imre Nagy

Fidel Castro

-overthrew Batista
-Cuban socialist leader
-est. a Marxist socialist state
-Soviet supported regime

"Bay of Pigs"

-attempt to overthrow Castro's regime
-supported by US
-failed

Cuban Missile Crisis

-USSR response to Bay of Pigs
-place missiles in Cuba facing US
-placed by Khrushchev
-US has missiles in Turkey
-JFK is informed
-must make a quick decision
-demands that the missiles are removed

Leonid Brezhnev

-replaced Khrushchev
-USSR
-troops to Czech to crush anti-communist movement
-Brezhnev Doctrine

Brezhnev Doctrine

-USSR could intervene in any socialist country
-no country could leave the Warsaw Pact
-justified crushing Hungarian and Czechoslovakian revolutions
-stifle rising democracies

"Prague Spring"

-Czechoslovakia under control of Novotny
-Alexander Dubcek replaces him
-"socialism with a human face"
-relaxed restrictions on freedom of speech, press, right to travel abroad
-economic reforms
-party control reduced
-Brezhnev sends in troops and replaces Dubcek

Berlin Wall

-built by East Germany
-kept citizens from escaping to the west from the Soviet zone
-1961

Détente

-period of reduced tensions between US and USSR
-Nixon and Brezhnev
-ABM (anti ballistic missile treaty)
-Helsinki Agreement
-SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

1968

-change and revolution
-Prague Spring
-Paris (student revolts)
-Chicago (hippie revolts)

Uhuru

-"freedom"
-achieving independence from colonialism
-african countries wanted to be free from foreign influence

KANU

-Kenya Africa National Union
-founded by Jomo Kenyatta
-rise of African nationalism
-nonviolent
-let by western educated intellectuals
-addressed economic and political issues

Mau Mau

-violent movement against European settlers
-led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain
-Africans vs. Africans

ANC

-African National Congress
-western educated intellectuals
-wanted economic and political reform
-full equality for educated africans
-little success

Neo-Colonialism

-became politically independent
-economically tied to West

Desertification

-land for farming is overused
-land turns to desert
-problem for economy

Negritude

-common bond between all Africans
-distinct "african personality"
-"blackness"
-OAU-Organization of African Unity

Organization of African Unity

-Pan-Africanism
-support independence movements
-economic cooperation
-peace

Pan-Africanism

-negritude
-concept of continental unity
-unity of Africans

Apartheid

-racial segregation
-political, economic, and legal discrimination
-against non whites

Nelson Mandela

-leader of ANC
-eventually president of South Africa
-opposed to apartheid

Fulgencio Batista

-Cuban dictator
-closely tied to US investors
-support for rebels increases
-support for Batista decreases
-

Juan Perón

-labor secretary in Argentina
-support in working class
-becomes powerful through popular support
-eventually becomes VP
-arrested by those who feared his power
-eventually becomes President
-authoritarian regime

Eva Perón

-power behind Juan's regime
-background with working class
-founded women's organizations to support the government

Falkland Islands War

-invasion of british islands
-create a diversion from Argentinian weakness
-Argentina loses
-embarrassing for Argentina
-Argentina begins downfall

Institutional Revolutionary Party

-PRI
-after mexican revolution
-one party system
-elections every six years

Lazaro Cardenas

-mexican president
-wide support from the peasants
-land redistribution act
-puts land in the hands of the people
-representative workers into politics

Vicente Fox

-mexican president
-defeated the PRI candidate
-ends 70 year PRI rule

Mikhail Gorbachev

-came to power in USSR
-recognized need for massive reform
-glasnost
-perestroika

Perestroika

-restructuring
-reordering economic policy
-market economy
-free price system
-limited free enterprise
-private property
-formation of other political parties

Glasnost

-"openness"
-free discussion of Soviet problems
-strengths and weaknesses of USSR
-bans on media lifted
-freedom and expression

Sinatra Doctrine

-allowed USSR satellite countries to do what they wanted
-could not jeopardize soviet interests
-kick started moves towards independence

Boris Yeltsin

-President of Russian Republic
-russian law over soviet law
-??

New Union Treaty

-would give Eastern Europe more freedom and independence
-Gorbachev gets captured before he can sign it

1991 Coup

-attempt of hardliners to overthrow Gorbachev
-keep him from signing the New Union Treaty b/c wanted to keep old communism
-hold him hostage in house arrest
-Yanayev and gang of 8

1993 coup

-Yeltsin dismisses parliament
-no constitutional right
-parliament impeaches him and puts VP Rutskoi into power
-Yeltsin refuses to step down
-confusion and chaos
-2 governments
-Yeltsin sends troops to attack parliament
-street violence
-finally steps down
-Russia is unstable after fall of USSR

Yanayev

-Gorbachev's VP
-leader of gang of 8
-led 1991 coup

Gang of 8

-hardline communists
-want to overthrow Gorbachev

Alexander Rutskoi

-

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