2012 Social Studies Exam Guide

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Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812

William Bradford

The leader of the Pilgrims

Samuel Morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. This influenced many soldiers and patriots.

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence. He led the Boston tea party.

Hernando Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Eli Whitney

an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

Lewis and Clark

Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.

Brigham Young

United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith. He led the Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah.

Mayflower Compact

This document was written in 1620 that provided law and order to the Plymouth colony

Beringia

land bridge that connected Asia and North America

Northwest Passage

water route to asia through North America sought by european explorers

Town Meetings

A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town's voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.

Penn's Woods

the meaning of the word "Pennsylvania"

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Great Compromise

Rodger Sherman presented this compromise. It stated that the number representatives in the House of Representatives would be based on population. Also, representatives would be chosen by the people of the state.Thirdly, the senate was became the upper house and the house of reps would be the name given to the lower house. The senate would have two reps for each state. Senators would be chosen by the state legislatures (until the 17th amendment which called for election by citizens).

War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

Supreme Court

the highest federal court in the United States

Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

Articles of Confederation

They were the first National constitution. Set up a loose association of 13 states. Main author was John Dikeson.

Judiciary Act

a 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation

Federalist Party

a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century, founded by Alexander Hamilton. It favored a strong centralized government.

Louisiana Purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million. Extends from the Missisippi river to the rocky mountains

Monroe Doctrine

President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting people who are friends and supporters of the group in power of government

California Gold Rush

1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.

Jamestown Colony

First permanent English settlement in America(Virginia). It was founded in 1607 fir the purpose of finding gold. Gold was never found, however. Jamestown became successful because of their cash crop, tobacco.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

a 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War. But they fiund no gunpowder because Paul Revere warned the Americans of this attack. The minute omen were waiting to attack the British at Concords north bridge.

Constitutional Convention

the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

Underground Railroad

abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves

Imports

goods brought into a country or region

Legislative Branch of Government

The Congress. There are two houses of Congress. The Senate has two Senators from each of the 50 states. The House of Representatives has 435 voting members. The number of representatives from a state depends on how many people live in the state. States having more people have more representatives.

Judicial Review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

Exports

items sent out to other regions that are domestically made

Preamble

a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)

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