portuguese "pearl of irregular shape" emphasis on emotion and exaggeration, architecture and art use exessive decoration
foundation for all Baroque music and baseline is played by 2 instruments
usually cello, maybe bassoon
usually harp, perhaps organ or flute
new genre developed around 1600 in Italy, based on mythology or history, and drama set to music, composer sets text or libretto to music
2 styles of singing
recitative or aria
(dialogue/monologue) tells story, action takes place, heightened speech, free rhythm
emotional statement, reflects on the action, expensive and lyrical
Orfeo (1607) 1 of first operas (story of Orpheus and Euridice)
they get married
Euridice is bitten by snake and dies, recitative and Arioso "Thou Art Dead", Orpheus mourns her death
goes to underworld
Orfeo looks back at Euridice and loses her again
english composer made Dido and Aeneous (1689)
Queen of Carthage
soldier from Troy, destined to found Rome
repeating bass line here, falling chromatic line
"When I am Laid in Earth"
mass, madrigal, opera, sonata, conerto
binary, ternary, rondo, ritornello
4 movement work for 1 instrument and basso continuo
1 solo, 2 basso continuo (solo sonata)
4 movement work for 2 soloists and basso continuo
2 solo, 2 basso continuo (trio continuo)
alternate slow, fast, slow, fast
3 movement work for soloist and orchestra w/ basso conintuo
3 movement work for group of soloists(concertino) and orchestra (tutti)
tempos in 3 movements
fast, slow, fast
usually in Ritornello form
hundreds of concerto for many instruments and conducted orchestra at girls orphange
group of 4 conertos
Brandenburg Concerto #5
violin, flute, harpsichord
section for soloist alone at end of a concerto movement
organ music fugue in G minor
theme played against the subject
entry of all fugue voices
transitions between subject entires
mostly instrumental music for the court orchestra, including Brandenburg Concerto #5
composer for 3 churches
7 movement work for the Lutheran service w/ vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra
20-25 minutes long in a church
Awake, a Voice is Calling
chorus, recit, aria, chorus, recit, aria, chorus
chorus more flowing
most simple (congregation joins choir to sing the chorale melody
7 movements are spoken in what?
George Frederic Handel
german composer studied in Italy, wrote operas and oratorios for English audiences
most famous oratorio
uses arias and recitatives like opera but is NOT staged(stand still performance)
where are oratorios performed?
in theaters and are usually 3 hours
time of enlightenment with social reforms, especially French philosophers
rise of middle class
more public concerts
composers rely less on working for 1 patron (Haydn still does)
Franz Joseph Haydn
worked 30 yrs for Esterhazy family and lived around Vienna, 104 total symphonies
Haydn is known for what?
string quartets, oraterios, and masses
Wolfgang Amaeus Mozart
born and raised in Salzburg and was child prodigy, performed for royalty across Europe, moved to Vienna in 1781 to become freelance performer, composer, and teacher
Wolfgang is a great composer because...
wrote operas, symphonies, piano sonatus, and concertos
Baroque dance music
binary from A and B
Classical Dance music
rounded binary form
Minuet and Trio
pair of dances in classical music and each dance is in rounded binary form
Mozart Minuet and Trio
A Little Night Music, III
most important and complex form in classical period
found in 1st movement
symphony, sonata, string quartet, and concerto
theme I, transition bridge, theme 2, closing theme, then repitition
parts of previous theme unstable
theme, transition, theme 2, closing them
ending of sonata-allegro form
fast, sonata-allegro, longest, most serious and comlex
slow, ternary, T & V, sonata-allegro, lyrical, relaxed, calm, and flowing
mod.fast, minuet and trio ternary, dance-light and elegant
fast, rondo, T & V, sonata-allegro, light, bright, maybe numerous
a multi-movement (usually 4) work for classical orchestra
mozart wrote how many symphonies?
example of symphony
mozart, symphony # 40 in G minor (1788)
4-movement work for 4 string players: 2 violins, viola, cello
"Emperor" Quartet 2nd movement is theme and variation based on b-day song from Franz II
3-movement work for instrumental soloist and piano
how many performers are there for classical sonata?
how many people for classical piano sonata?
can have from 1-4 players
how many people for Baroque solo sonata?
3(solo and 2 b.c.)
how many for Baroque trio sonato?
4(2 soloists, 2 b.c.)
classical concerto is similar to bar. solo concerto why?
because 3-movement work for soloist and orchestra
double exposition form
type of sonata-allegro form
soloist and orchestra
what comes after the exposition?
the development and then the recapitulation
recitatives and arias still remain for what?
lower pitches and harmony
higher pitches and harmony
second creative period (1802-1815)
independence, "heroic" period, recognized as leading composer of time, completed symphonies 3-8
symphony # 3 in E flat "eroica"
original dedication to Napolean, longest 1st movement ever to that point, 2 movements titles Funeral March