grammer

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verb

a word that is used to express action or a state of being

noun

a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or an idea

adjective

a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun

adverb

modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb

preposition

a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word
example: she dives [into] the pool

conjunction

a word that joins words or word groups
ex: and, but, or, either, etc.

interjection

a word that expresses emotion
ex: wow! oh!

pronoun

a word that is used in place of one of more nouns or pronouns

three types of phrases

gerund, participle, and infinitive

verbal phrase

a group of related words, functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb

what do participles/participle phrases modify?

nouns and pronouns

what part of speech do participles serve?

adjective

what part of speech do gerunds serve?

noun

what part of speech do infinitives serve?

nouns, pronouns, and adjectives

what must gerunds end in?

-ing

what do participles end in?

ing, ed, nt, etc....

what is the difference in infinitive phrases and prepositional phrases?

infinitive phrase is a verbal phrase

what does an appositive rename?

noun or pronoun

what is a phrase?

a group of related words, missing the subject, and functions as a part of speech

functions of a noun

S, DO, PN, APP, IO, and OP

examples of gerunds

hiking, strolling, running

examples of participles

burned, burnt, melting

adjective clause

a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun
ex: We feel bad for our friends [whose luggage was lost]

adverb clause

a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
ex: As long as we were there, we helped them look for clothes

personification

representing an abstract quality or idea as a person or creature

simile

a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')

metaphor

a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

onomatopoeia

bang! knock knock! crasssh

hyperbole

extravagant exaggeration

what is the difference between a subordinate and an independent clause?

independent has a complete thought; subordinate doesn't

what three things are in a subordinate clause?

subject, verb, incomplete thought

if a subordinate clause is essential, what does this mean?

it is needed to complete the thought of the sentence

if the subordinate clause is nonessential, what does this mean? what punctuation will it have?

it is not needed to complete the thought of the sentence; it is punctuated with a comma

simple sentence

only subject and verb

compound sentence

2 complete thoughts (includes "and", "but", "or")

complex

1 independent and 1 subordinate

compound complex

2 complete thoughts and one subordinate

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