a word that is used to express action or a state of being
a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or an idea
a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun
modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word
example: she dives [into] the pool
a word that joins words or word groups
ex: and, but, or, either, etc.
a word that expresses emotion
ex: wow! oh!
a word that is used in place of one of more nouns or pronouns
three types of phrases
gerund, participle, and infinitive
a group of related words, functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb
what do participles/participle phrases modify?
nouns and pronouns
what part of speech do participles serve?
what part of speech do gerunds serve?
what part of speech do infinitives serve?
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives
what must gerunds end in?
what do participles end in?
ing, ed, nt, etc....
what is the difference in infinitive phrases and prepositional phrases?
infinitive phrase is a verbal phrase
what does an appositive rename?
noun or pronoun
what is a phrase?
a group of related words, missing the subject, and functions as a part of speech
functions of a noun
S, DO, PN, APP, IO, and OP
examples of gerunds
hiking, strolling, running
examples of participles
burned, burnt, melting
a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun
ex: We feel bad for our friends [whose luggage was lost]
a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
ex: As long as we were there, we helped them look for clothes
representing an abstract quality or idea as a person or creature
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
bang! knock knock! crasssh
what is the difference between a subordinate and an independent clause?
independent has a complete thought; subordinate doesn't
what three things are in a subordinate clause?
subject, verb, incomplete thought
if a subordinate clause is essential, what does this mean?
it is needed to complete the thought of the sentence
if the subordinate clause is nonessential, what does this mean? what punctuation will it have?
it is not needed to complete the thought of the sentence; it is punctuated with a comma
only subject and verb
2 complete thoughts (includes "and", "but", "or")
1 independent and 1 subordinate
2 complete thoughts and one subordinate