organisms (plants) that make their own food
organisms (animals) that cant use the sun's energy directly
a principle chemical compounD used to store energy in living things (ATP)
the process where plants use to sunlight to make their own food
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 +6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen
what does photosynthesis require in addition to water and carbon dioxide?
light and chlorophyll
light absorbing molecule
the main pigment in plants
what are the two main types of chlorophyll?
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
sac-like membranes inside of chloroplasts
what do thylakoids do?
they capture the energy in sunlight
the place where the Calvin Cycle occurs (the area outside of the thylakoid membranes)
a carrier molecule that accepts and holds 2 high energy electrons and hydrogen
nadp+ along with two high energy electrons and a hydrogen molecule
the stage where the plant uses energy from light to convert adp and nadp+ into atp and nadph
a protein that alowws H+ ions to pass through the membrane
when plants use ATP's and NADPH's energy to build high energy compounds that can be stored for a while
what does the calvin cycle use and produce?
it uses atp and nadph from the light dependent reactions to create glucose
what does an ATP molecule consist of?
adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups
same thing as ATP except only with two phosphate groups instead of three
when is the energy in ATP released?
when it is converted into adp and a phosphate group
what are some examples of how atp powers the cell?
active transport and organelle movement
what is atp not good for?
long term energy
what do plants use the glucose made in photosynthesis for?
they use it to produce complex carbohydrates (example=starches)
in what form does energy from the sun travel to the Earth?
why are plants green?
chlorophyll absorbs light well int he blue and red wavelengths, but not in the green wavelengths
stacks of thylakoids
clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments and proteins in thylakoids that capture the energy of sunlight
reactions during the calvin cycle that don't require light
a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them to another molecule
what could the atp synthase be compared to?
a rotating turbine
who is the calvin cycle named after?
the american scientists Melvin Calvin who worked out the details of the cycle
what could slow down photosyntheses?
shortage of water, low temperature, and intensity of light22
stomates control what?
parts of a chloroplast
double membrane, stroma, thylakoid sacs, grana stacks
what do light reactions do?
they convert solar energy into chemical energy
what is released during light reactions?