AP Psych Exam Review

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The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates:

the placebo effect

The false consensus effect refers to the tendency to:

exaggerate the extent to which others agree with us

to assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of:

random assignment

slender women are considered especially beautiful in one country; in another country, stout women are seen as particularly attractive. In both countries, however, women perceived as very beautiful receive preferential treatment. This best illustrates that ______ often underlie cultural differences.

common psychological processes

in order to exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in:

experimentation

the hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events

for which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean?

6, 18, 4, 5, 2

in order to understand the British newspaper headline 'Income for 62% Is Below Average', it is necessary to appreciate the distinction between the _____ and the mean.

Median

which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that any outcome differences between the experimental and control conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in research participants?

random assignment

a correlation coefficient is a measure of the:

direction and strength of the relationship between two variables

the hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as:

unsurprising

in an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ____ condition

control

the belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis pain best illustrates:

an illusory correlation

opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:

endorphins

people can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as color, shape, and size. This best illustrates the functioning of multiple:

neural networks

the cortical regions that are not directly involved in sensory or motor functions are known as

association areas

the nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called

phrenology

the selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a(n):

resting potential

the part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called:

axon

messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the:

sympathetic nervous system

the spatial junction where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called:

synapses

split-brain patients have had their _____ cut

corpus callosum

the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:

neural networks

the depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n):

action potential

the sequence of brain regions from the evolutionary oldest to newest is:

brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortex

research on left-handedness suggests that:

genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness

motor neurons are an important part of the:

peripheral nervous system

information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the:

corpus callosum

professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:

behaviorism

compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their:

synapses

by insisting that humans are 'nothing but' products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:

individual responsibility

cultural diversity best illustrates our:

adaptive capacities

children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of:

gender-typing

a random error in gene replication is known as a:

mutation

Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in:

temperament

the threadlike structures that contain genes are called:

chromosomes

even though many chairs in the library study area are unoccupied, Wang chooses to sit right next to Annest. Annest is most likely to feel uncomfortable because Wang has violated her:

personal space

kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates;

a selection effect

Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ____ theory of sexual behavior?

evolutionary

cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:

person to person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups

compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are:

less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion

gender identity refers to:

the sense of being male or female

if a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:

natural selection

when male and female students research assistants at FSU sexually propositioned an attractive person of the opposite sex, their invitations were accepted by:

most men but virtually no women

when Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was an elderly person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture characterized by:

collectivism

one-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:

secure attachment

adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called:

accommodation

a belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood years would be most relevant to the issue of:

stability or change

according to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate:

the ability to think hypothetically

the acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of:

stranger anxiety

habituation refers to the:

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed

avoiding physical punishment is to ______ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ______ morality

preconventional; conventional

according to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the acheivement of:

identity

crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's:

accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" she responded, "those who had been previously blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the _____ stage of development

formal operational

the first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as _____ is to an adolescent girl

menarche

maturation is to education as _____ is to ______

nature; nurture

babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of:

insecure attachment

in an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children's:

theory of mind

in order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of:

habituation

the best evidence that 4 month old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on:

habituation

damage to the temporal lobe region of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of:

perception

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye

pupil

the volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of:

pitch

our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of:

top-down processing

hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ______ as recognizing the sound sequences as a familiar melody is to _____

sensation; perception

people who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their:

visual cortex

the integration of information processed simultaneously by multiple neural networks can be detected as a pattern of:

synchronized brain waves

olfactory receptor cells are essential for our sense of:

smell

sound wave vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the:

middle ear

although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower _______ for skunk odor than his parents.

absolute threshold

low-pitched sounds are to high-pitched sounds as ___ colors are to _____ colors.

red; blue

Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of:

difference thresholds

when most people stare at a red square and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage square is:

green

the coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

cochlea

on the day she is to be interviewed, for an important new position, Rachel awakens with a severe toothache. During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Rachel's experience is best explained by:

the gate-control theory

visual information is processed by:

ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors

the quick succession of briefly flashed images in a motion picture produces:

stroboscopic movement

the cocktail party effect provides an example of:

selective attention

the impact of experience on perception is most clearly illustrated by:

perceptual adaptation

which of the following is a cue used by artists to convey depth on a flat canvas?

interposition

the perceived lightness of an object depends on relative luminance. This provides an illustration of:

context effects

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates:

selective attention!

because the two teams wore different colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of:

similarity

after watching a scary tv movie, Julie perceived the noise of the wind rattling her front windows as the sound of a burglar breaking into her house. Her mistaken interpretation best illustrates the influence of:

perceptual set

when there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more senses, which sense tends to dominate the others?

vision

the perception that Bugs Bunny is hopping across a movie screen best illustrates:

stroboscopic movement

in one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrates:

inattentional blindness

as Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filler a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates:

size constancy

Who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts?

gestalt psychologists

which of the following is true of psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve different crimes?

they have reported visions that are no more accurate than guesses

the perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near each other is called:

proximity

numerous pedestrians calmly walked past an elderly gentleman lying on a city sidewalk without showing any concern. As a consequence, other passersby failed to perceive that the man was in need of immediate medical assistance. This best illustrates the importance of:

context effects

the need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:

tolerance

alpha waves are associated with:

a relaxed but awake state

our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:

the circadian rhythm

alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more:

self-conscious

unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to:

occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions

drug tolerance refers to the:

reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular use

40 year old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep

Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:

biological rhythms

hypnosis has been associated with quackery, thanks to the false claims made by:

Anton Mesmer

The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why:

people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep

Sleep apnea is a disorder involving:

the cessation of breathing during sleep

nightmares are to ____ as night terrors are to ____

REM Sleep; Stage 4 sleep

by 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in:

mental processes

studies of marijuana's effects indicate that:

regular users may achieve a high with less of the drug than occasional users

unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of:

physical dependence

28 year old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapists hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of:

age regression

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:

generalization

seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illlustrates:

operant conditioning

without any explicit training from adults, many 8 year old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parent's cars. This best illustrates the importance of:

observational learning

using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit:

intrinsic motivation

rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:

novel tastes

it is easier to train a dog to bark for food rather than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ____ in learning.

biological predisposition

the predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ____ in conditioning.

cognitive processes

Bandura's experiments indicate that _____ is important in the process of learning.

modeling

the tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on tv best illustrates the importance of:

modeling

the tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called:

generalization

compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer electricity usage is influenced by:

operant conditioning

The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ____ is to _____

primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backwards because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:

modeling

According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:

external influences

Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?

positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding, negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding

researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:

acquisition

the letters Y M O M R E are presented. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word M E M O R Y. This provides an illustration of:

chunking

Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:

12 seconds

shortly after you see a missing child poster, you are more likely to interpret an ambiguous adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of:

priming

after hamsters learned whether to turn right or left in a maze in order to find food, their body temperature was lowered until the electrical activity in their brains ceased. When the hamsters were revived, they still remembered what they had learned before the 'blackout'. The hamsters' directional memory was apparently a ____ memory

long-term

the use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of:

chunking

mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of:

retrieval

Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves:

retrieval failure

by presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of second, Sperling demonstrated that people have ____ memory.

iconic

Children can better remmeber an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates ____ memory

semantic encoding

For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates _____ memory

echoic

With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that:

adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.

Watching a tv soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the tv program on Andrea's recall provides an example of:

priming

Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ______ is to _____

visual stimulation; auditory stimulation

compared to adults, children are more susceptible to:

the misinformation effect

our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:

encoding failure

although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure of:

retrieval

encouraging people to elaborate on why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote:

belief perseverance

mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of:

the representative heuristic

the smallest speech units that carry meaning are called:

morphemes

the earliest stage of speech development is called the ____ stage

babbling

on monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it wouldn't rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the impact of:

framing effect

at 17 months of age, Julie says 'wada' whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ____ stage of language development.

one-word

in the words 'lightly', 'shortly' and 'neatly', the 'ly' ending is a:

morpheme

a european visitor to the united states asked a taxi driver 'can you please a ride to the airport me give?' The visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ____ of the English language

syntax

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