Earth/Environmental Science Final Study Guide

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What are the four branches of Earth Science?

Geology-the study of the origin, history, and structure of the solid Earth and the processes that shape it
Oceanography-the study of the sea, waves, tides, ocean currents, etc.
Meteorology-the study of the Earth's atmosphere
Astronomy-the study of the universe beyond the Earth

What are the similarities and differences between the two types of ecosystems (open and closed)?

Similarity:
Energy can leave and/or enter.
Differences:
Open systems will allow all matter to be released and/or entered;
In closed systems, nothing can be released and/or entered, except energy, or even hydrogen atoms or little things, making the closed system only MOSTLY closed.

Why is Earth considered a closed system and what are some of the exceptions?

Earth is considered a closed system because only a few things can enter and/or be released from the Earth, including hydrogen atoms, satellites, and meteors/meteorites.

What are the four spheres of the Earth and their composition? How do the spheres interact?

Hydrosphere-water
Litho/Geosphere-rock
Atmosphere-air
Biosphere-life

What three types if individual safety equipment can you wear?

-safety goggles
-lab coat/apron
-gloves

What types of classroom safety equipment are there and where are the nearest ones found?

Emergency blanket-in the classroom
Fire Extinguisher-in the classroom
First Aid Kit-in the classroom
Safety Shower/Eye Wash Station-in the classroom

Is the lithosphere changing? Why don't we always notice?

Yes, but we don't always notice because the Geologic Time Scale (GTS) is vast compared to our human lives

What element is the building block of all life? What do we call living things?

-CARBON;
-Living things=ORGANISMS

What are the sources of Earth's energy? What is the primary source? What could happen if Earth's energy budget was not equal?

*Solar-sunlight
Geothermal-Earth's heat
Tridal-ocean waves/currents

*Primary source
If Earth's energy budget was not equal... BAD THINGS.

What do the following prefixes mean: geo-, hydro-, litho-, atmo-, bio-?

Geo-Earth
Hydro-water
Litho-land
Atmo-air
Bio-life

What are the elements (basic parts) of the scientific method?

1. Background/Research
2. Purpose/Question
3. Hypothesis
4. Materials
5. Methods/Procedures
6.Observation
7. Results/Data
8.Conclusion

Define the following: data, variable, control group, experimental group, and hypothesis.

Data-info gathered from an experiment
Variable-factors in an experiment
Control- the group in an experiment that doesn't get any treatment
Experimental-the group that receives treatment
Hypothesis-educated guess on a problem or experiment

Compare and contrast independent (IV) and dependent variables (DV).

Similarities:
-Single factors;
-The researchers do it
Differences:
-The independent variable in an experiment is the one factor in that experiment that the researchers can change, and controls the outcome of the experiment (ex.: time);
-The dependent variable in an experiment is the single factor that the researchers measure in that experiment, and depends on the change done to the IV.

Compare and contract qualitative and quantitative data.

Similarity:
-Used to help gather info
Differences:
-Qualitative data focuses on the qualities and descriptions of something in the experiment (ex.: "She has black hair.";
-Quantitative data focuses on the quantities and numbers of something in the experiment (ex.: "He has ten toes."

What are the types of graphs described in this class? When do you use each?

Circle/Pie Graph-percentages
Bar Graph-comparing constants among levels of IV
Histogram-compares ranges of data in intervals
Line Graph-shows changes of multiple DV measurements in one or more variables

How do you plot data tables and graphs based on the data from an experiment? What information goes on a graph and where does it go? How do you get information from a graph?

Look to see where the labels are, and read the data and labels.

How do the independent variable and dependent variable fit into a basic title of an experiment (ex.: "The Effect of...on...)?

"The Effect of [IV] on [DV]"

How can hypotheses be written in the "If...then...because..." format?

"If [IV] [goes up/down], then [DV] [goes up/down] because [explain]."

What are planetessimals and what do they have to do with Earth's origins?

-small, early planets, which formed through gravitational attraction, reaching sizes of a few miles to eventually the size of our moon;
-have to do with Earth's early origins because the Earth was formed from 2 planetessimals that collided together

Describe what the Earth was like when it first formed. What was the early atmosphere like on Earth?

-when first formed, the Earth was a molten rock planet, much like Venus (its "Twin Sister"); firey ball of rock covered in lava
-the Earth's early atmosphere was unlivable for human life, seeing as it was covered in noxious, or poisonous gases

What is the leading theory on the formation of the moon?

Earth collided with a planetessimal, breaking off a piece of both Earth and the planetessimal which formed to something shaped like the moon today, and got trapped in Earth's gravitational pull.

What are two possible sources of the water on the Earth's surface today?

-volcanic outgasing
-ice baring comets that crashed into the Earth

What is ozone? In which layers of the atmosphere are "good" and "bad" ozone found? Where are these layers found?

-3 Oxygen atoms
-good up high (stratosphere)
bad down low (troposphere)

Why is stratospheric ozone good? What are CFCs and what effect do they have on this ozone?

-ozone is good in stratosphere because it creates a layer (called the Ozone Layer) which protects us from the sun's harmful UV rays
-Chlorofluorocarbons found in many household items including aerosol cans, refrigerators, AC units, etc.
-CFCs have a negative effect on stratosphere ozone:CFCs destory ozone creation process

What is the Montreal Protocol and why is it important?

a treaty many countries' leaders signed, banning CFCs/CFC products, which is important because CFCs destroy ozone in the stratosphere, which is bad

What is a bio-indicator? How do salamanders and ozone-sensitive plants act as bio-indicators?

-an indication of how SOx, NOx, and VOCs affect lifeforms
-salamanders breathe through their skin, and so have no control over if they breathe in ozone, etc., which makes them good indicators.
-same as above ^ for ozone-sensitive plants

What makes one color different from another?

wavelengths

What are the scientific ideas for the origin of the universe (Big Bang Theory), including the concept of "inflation" and the origin of the solar system (Nebular Hypothesis)?

-states that about 14 billion years ago, the universe began expanding & cooling from hot dense state, and is still expanding to this day
-a supernova (explosion of a nearby star) send a shock-wave through space, causing a nebula to collapse about 5 billion years ago

Compare and contrast Terrestrial and Jovian planets.

-planets near the sun so hot that lightweight gases such as hydrogen & helium boiled away, leaving collisions of metals & rocky materials, small in size (ex.: mercury, venus, earth, mars)

What is the difference between meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites?

-Meteoroids-smaller rock or icy fragment
-Meteors-meteoroid passing through the atmosphere
-Meteorites-remaining part of a meteoroid that has struck the Earth's surface

What is the electromagnetic spectrum and what are the types of electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum from long to short wavelengths? (Hint: know where rabbits mate.)

-all the wavelengths of light emitted by an object in space (like our sun); provides info about our galaxy and objects in it; includes visible light:
Radio (Rabbits)
Micro (Mate)
Infrared (In)
Violet (Very)
Ultra-Violet (Unusually)
X-ray (eXpensive)
Gamma (Gardens)

The study of the wavelengths of light is called____.

Spectroscopy

True or false: Each element gives off its unique spectrum.

True: Each element gives off its unique spectrum.

Compare and contrast refracting and reflecting telescopes as well as convex and concave.

-Refracting telescope-uses a convex lens to bend or refract light
-Reflecting telescope-collects light with a concave mirror and focuses in front of mirror
-Convex-bottom of spoon
-Concave-top of spoon

How can you determine the magnification of a refracting telescope and what is the difference between the eyepiece and objective lens?

lens A (the bigger focal length)/lens B (the smaller focal length)=magnifying power
-lens you look through (always shorter)
-lens you look out (always longer)

What is the relationship between color of a star and its temperature? Which stars are hottest and which are coldest?

Red Orange Yellow White Blue
C<------------------------------------>H

Our solar system is part of what type of galaxy? What is it called?

-This is a spiral galaxy.
-Its name is the Milky Way.

When does a protostar become a star? When does a star "die"?

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Know the final stages of the lifecycles of massive stars (two possible final stages), average stars (sun-like) stars, and low-mass stars.

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What three pieces of evidence support the Big Bang Theory?

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What is Hubble's Law? The Dopler Effect? Red Shift? Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation?

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Know the Law of Superposition and the Principle of Cross Cutting Relationships and understand how to apply them if given a picture with multiple strata.

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Compare and contrast relative time (or relative dating) to absolute time (or absolute dating).

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Know what a fault and igneous intrusion are and how they relate to the Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships.

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Define unconformities. Why is it important for scientists to be able to recognize when they occur?

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In what type of rock are fossils found and why? Know the four general types of fossils discussed in class and notes.

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Given a specific isotope of an element (ex.: H-3), be able to determine its number of protons, neutrons, electrons, electron energy levels, and location of the electrons in the energy levels if given a periodic table.

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Define matter, atom, element, proton, neutron, electron, nucleus of an atom, atomic number, atomic mass, and isotope.

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Understand the process of radiometric dating using the half-life of radioactive isotopes. Be able to solve half-live math problems and understand the difference in parent and daughter isotopes.

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Know the basic units of the metric system and how to convert to larger and smaller units (KHDaUDCM).

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Understand the appropriate real-life values of basic metric-units. (For example, you might drink 1L of coke. Your dog might be 1m long.)

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Determine length, area, volume, and density of objects, know what these terms mean, and understand the units of these terms.

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What is the difference between mass and weight? Why would your mass be the same on the moon but you weight be different?

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What is the density of water?

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Know and understand the conversion of mL to cc.

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Know the proper instruments for measuring in the metric system and how to use them.

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Know the metric system temperature (degrees C) units and relative temperatures (boiling and freezing points) and be able to convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit if given the formula.

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What are natural resources?

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Distinguish between a renewable and nonrenewable resource.

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What are types/examples of renewable resources?

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What are the four primary nonrenewable energy resources? Which are fossil fuels? Why are they called fossil fuels?

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What are the five characteristics necessary for a substance to be a mineral?

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Explain two processes of mineral formation.

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The two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust are____ and____. What are the two elements in all silicates?

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Which of the following are minerals: coal, water, ice, aluminum, granite, oil, and quartz? For the ones that aren't minerals, explain why they are not.

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Define igneous rocks and explain how they form. How do igneous rocks fit into the rock cycle?

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What are the meanings of "igne" in igneous, and "meta" and "morph" in metamorphic?

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Define sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary rocks fit into the rock cycle and relate to igneous and metamorphic rocks?

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What are the three types of sedimentary rocks? How are each formed? (Give some examples.)

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How do metamorphic rocks form?

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Know the basic parts of the rock cycle and how rocks can be formed and change into other rocks. Use your "Rock Cycle in Earth's Crust" worksheet.

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Be able to define and explain the following: cartographer, longitude, latitude, prime meridian, and equator.

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What five key elements are integral to any map?

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What do contour lines indicate on a topographic map? Know how to identify and analyze contour lines. (What would the topography of an area be like if the contour lines were close together? If they were far apart?

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How do we show depressions of topography (like a volcano crater)? What happens when a contour line crosses a river or a stream?

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List the layers of the Earth's interior in order from: A) most to least dense, B) deepest to exterior, C) thickest to thinnest.

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Which is thicker AND which is denser, oceanic or continental crust?

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Know the following terms: crust, mantle, outer core, inner core, lithosphere, and asthenosphere.

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What is the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake?

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Define the following: seismology, seismograph, and seismogram. Also define earthquake, Richter Scale, and fault.

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Describe the process involved in locating an earthquake's epicenter. How many seismograms are needs to determine the epicenter of an earthquake?

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Contrast primary and secondary waves according to: A) how fast they travel, B) if they do/don't travel through solid, liquid, or gas, and C) what they tell us about Earth's interior.

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What evidence supports our knowledge of the Earth's interior? What do we know about Earth's interior?

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What are the two most abundant elements in ocean water?

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What is salinity? How do factors such as unusually warm temperatures or above-average rainfall affect salinity?

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Denser materials typically [sink below or float above] less dense materials.

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What are surface currents primarily caused by? What two other factors affect the movement of surface currents?

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What surface current runs past the North Carolina coast? Is it a warm or cold current?

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What causes deep currents? What two factors primarily affect this cause?

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What is upwelling and how is it influenced by the atmosphere?

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What is a "carrying capacity"?

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What is a limiting factor and what is the difference between limiting factors that are "density dependent" and "density independent"?

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What is the difference between a biotic vs. an abiotic factor affecting an organism?

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