Caused by a fungi. These fungi like Moist places (contagious)
Airborne; droplet infection; direct contact with
infected person. Virus
Droplets in air; contaminated milk and dairy products. Bacteria
an infective disease caused by protist parasites that are transmitted through the bite of a infected Anopheles mosquito
an acute inflammatory disease infection caused by a bacteria carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick
Airborne; direct contact with infected person. Varicella Virus
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
those more long-term-stable B cells that can differentiate into plasma cells.
those B cells that can immediately produce (and secrete)
"cellular eating," engulf and digest invaders
proteins which stimulate noninfected cells to manufacture
substances that block virus reproduction
chemical released by activated mast cells that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area
A large, non-sepcific, phagocytic cell of the immune system. frequently leave the bloodstream to crawl around in the tissues and perform 'clean up' duties, such as ingesting dead cells or cellular debris at an injury site, or pathogens.
"antibody generator" - any substance capable of
eliciting an immune response
Y-shaped proteins with 2 identical antigen binding
sites; bonding to antigens slows or halts further infection
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
Cell Mediated Immunity
an immune response in which killer T cells attack antigen-bearing cells directly
primary immune response
first formation of B and T cells to battle a new pathogen
secondary immune response
memory cells allow a quicker and stronger response to a second exposure
dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen which stimulates the immune response
additional dose of antigen to stimulate antibody production
and extend memory
act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system.
Characteristics of a Virus
• Viruses are nonliving, infectious particles (cannot reproduce on their own, cannot obtain energy or feed in any way)
• Viruses are extremely small (on average they are one thousandth the size of a typical bacterium)
• Vary greatly in structure and
• all contain a protein capsid, nucleic acid (RNA or DNA), and some means of attaching to and entering a host cell.
An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.(Ex. HIV)
RNA based viruses that use reverse transcriptase to copy their RNA into DNA before starting transcription.
a phage reproductive cycle that results in the death of the host cell
replicates the phage genome without destroying the host. However, the virus is capable of entering the other cycle
filter toxins out of the blood and produce urine
tube that carries urine to the bladder
liquid composed of urea, water, and mineral salts from the
storage of urine until it is excreted from the body
carries urine out of the body
the removal nitrogenous waste
makes hormones that control the pituitary gland
secretes a variety of hormones including:
FSH, LH, oxytocin (reproduction)
four glands that release parathyroid hormone - raises the level of calcium in the blood.
releases thymosin - stimulates T cell development
The adrenal glands release epinephrine & norepinephrine, which help the body deal with stress
produces melatonin - regulates day/night cycles
produces thyroxine - regulates metabolism
calcitonin - lowers blood calcium
produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood
produce estrogen and progesterone - secondary sex characteristics and reproduction
produce testosterone - sperm production and secondary sex
The release of a hormone is regulated by the products of the
metabolic pathway or by other hormones.
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus
a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
pass through the plasma membrane, join with a receptor
protein in the cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and the hormone receptor complex causes changes in DNA, resulting in protein production.
cannot pass through the plasma membrane, so instead they bind with a receptor protein on the cell surface. This causes an enzyme on the inner membrane to create a secondary messenger, which activates an enzyme to alter cellular function
Location of sperm production
Where sperm matures
A diploid cell that can undergo mitosis to form more spermatogonium, and can also be triggered to undergo meiosis to form sperm.
ovarian cycle- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes a follicle and its oocyte to start to mature
ovarian cycle- luteinizing hormone (LH) peaks causing the follicle to break open and release its egg
ovarian cycle- remaining follicle forms the corpus leuteum which secretes estrogen and progesterone
menstrual cycle- low levels of estrogen cause the endometrium (uterine lining) to break down and menstruation
menstrual cycle-rising estrogen levels cause the endometrium to thicken ovulation
menstrual cycle- further thickening of the endometrium, preparing for implantation of egg
a hollow ball of cells from the fertilized egg that implants itself into the uterus lining