Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
Person who works to destroy monopolies and trusts
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
group of reform movements of the late 1800's that focused on urban problems, such as the plight of workers, poor sanitation, and corrupt political machines
the right to vote
Moderation; abstinence from or restraint in the use of alcohol
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
(1919) Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
(1906) Strengthened the interstate commerce commission, allowing it to set maximum railroad rates.
Federal Reserve Act
(1913) Created 12 district Federal Reserve Banks each able to issue currency and loan member bank funds
City Commissioner Plan
Cities hire experts in different fields to run a single aspect of government: Ex. Sanitation Commissioner
City Manager Plan
A professional city manager is hired to run each department of the city and report to the city council
Privacy booths ensured that citizens can vote without party bosses knowing who for
Allows voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Businesses should not be regulated by government agencies: Laissez - Faire
Wanted laws to stop businesses from: 1. Competing in unfair ways. - 2. Provide protection for consumers from the unpleasant affects of industrialization - 3. Provide safer/cleaner/lawful conditions for workers - 4. Women's suffrage - 5. Break up of monopolies
Laissez Faire Economics
Policies which allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulation. Provided the predictability and security that businesses and industries needed to encourage investment and growth
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competition and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural.
People migrating to cities
Specialization of Labor
Each worker completes a single, specialized task over and over again
Manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product. - Based off the principles of Frederick Winslow Taylor - First made famous by Henry Ford in 1909
(1903) Outlawed the use of rebates by railroad officials or shippers so that prices for the common people weren't unfairly raised
Sherman Anti Trust Act
Outlawed the creation of a monopoly by any means, and stated that unions were not subject to anti-trust laws
Meat Inspection Act
(1906) Indirect response to The Jungle...requires that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health minded procedures
Pure Food and Drug Act
(1906) Required companies to accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items
Occupational Safety and Health Administration - a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
Environmental Protection Agency - an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
The National Woman Suffrage Association - Headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, Opposed the 15th amendment and accused abolitionists and Republican supporters of instituting black civil rights at the expense of women's rights
American Woman Suffrage Association - Led by Lucy Stone, Endorsed the 15th amendment and considered women's suffrage a natural right
National American Woman Suffrage Association - Created in 1890 when the two leading suffragist organizations united and settled the differences...Led by Carrie Champan Catt
National Woman's Party - Led by "militant" British suffragist Alice Paul - Little patience for "State by State" tactic and started to oppose the federal "party in power"
Seneca Falls Convention
July 19-20 1848 - 200 Women and 40 Men - Ist time women demanded the right to vote - Outcome was the Declaration of Sentiments
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Tried to acquire rights in each state legislature then use that as leverage on other states
FEderal Party-in-Power Tactic
Tactic used by Alice Paul's NWP that challenged everyone holding President's office until the other party has to agree with you