Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Lyndon B. Johnson
36th president, signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
jellied gasoline dropped by plane on jungles of Vietnam, gasoline-based bombs that stick to what they land and burn, more frightening than normal gas
"Living room war"
Term used when describing the Vietnam War and how Americans were able to watch first hand the war on television for the first time in US history
A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
Students for a Democratic Society-an antiestablishment New Left group, founded in 1960, this group charged that corporations and large government institutions had taken over America; they called for a restoration of "participatory democracy" and greater individual freedom
Originated in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS.) American version of Red Brigades (left wing radical); student radicals threaten to overtake strong American empire. Used John Brown as example of dedication.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
A policy of a relaxation of tensions in the Cold War and was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks - negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
37th president, he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
Secretary of State, supported realpolitik, appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary advisor, the main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Woodward & Bernstein
They were 2 Washington Post reporters followed clues furnished by a secret informant Deep Throat and wrote a succession of front page stories tying the break-in to illegal contributions and dirty tricks by CREEP.
38th president, the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices.
Rebel forces in Nicaragua who struggled against what they saw as US occupation of their nation and US backed puppet rulers in their nation's government. Particularly active in the 1970s and 1980s. The US frequently arranged groups to fight against these rebels, sometimes covertly as in the case of the Iran-Contra Affair.
Leader = Daniel Ortega who is now president
title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
Three Mile Island
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
belief in an aggressive foreign policy, democracy is the most advanced type of gov't, strongly against communism and totalitarianism, belief in moral clarity and moral certainty, civil equality should be promoted, accept social welfare, and emphasis personal responsibility.
40th president, first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Iran Contra Affair
President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped keep Iraq from winning the Iraq-Iran War (did not want a Middle Eastern superpower); very illegal (Iran was considered a terrorist state) and almost caused Reagan to be impeached.
-Bowlin Amendment = Congress not letting Reagen give Nicaragua money
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.