Doming - Final Review Terms

68 terms by ddoming 

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Acids

substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

Alcohol

any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation

Alkane

a non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2)

Alkene

consists of at least one carbon to carbon double bond

Allotropes

two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state

Alloy

a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten

Anode

a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

Atoms

the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.

Bases

substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water

Brass

an alloy of copper and zinc

Carbohydrates

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

Carbon Chain

carbon atoms chemicaly linked together, forming a chainlike molecular structure

carboxylic

relating to or containing the carboxyl group or carboxyl radical

Cathode

a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device

Ceramics

objects made from clay or other combinations of minerals baked at high temperature

Chemical

produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules

Coefficients

the numbers that appear before the formulas

Covalent Bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

Created

built or made

Crude Oil

a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

Cycloalkanes

Saturated hydrocarbons with carbon atoms joined in a ring

Decrease

the act of decreasing or reducing something

destroyed

destroyed physically or morally

Distillate

a purified liquid produced by condensation from a vapor during distilling

Distillation

the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

Doping

adding impurities to a semiconductor to increase conductivity

electron

an elementary particle with negative charge

electrons

negatively charged particles

electroplating

the deposition of a thin layer of metal on a surface by an electrical process involving oxidation-reduction reactions

endothermic

(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat

exothermic

(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat

fats

nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins

fractional distillation

fractionation of a liquid by distillation

fractions

a number that expresses parts of a whole or a group

fullerene

a form of carbon having a large molecule consisting of an empty cage of sixty or more carbon atoms

H+ ions

Ions that change the structure of hemoglobin so that O2 can no longer bind to it

hydrocarbons

organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen

intermolecular forces

forces of attraction between molecules

kinetic

characterized by motion

macronutrients

A chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts

micronutrients

Nutrients required in small or trace amounts. Some examples are phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium.

mole

the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams

neutron

an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton

nonrenewable

that can not be renewed

OH- ions

hydroxide ions

organic chemistry

the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)

percent composition

the percent by mass of each element in a compound

petroleum

a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

photosynthesis

synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

pigment

dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)

plastics

synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped

polymers

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

potential

the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

products

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

properties

characteristics used to describe a substance

proteins

macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

proton

a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron

reactants

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

renewable

capable of being renewed

semiconductors

elements that conduct an electric current under certain conditions

separately

apart from others

shells

the orbits of electrons around the nucleus in certain energy levels

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

structural isomers

compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.

superconductor

a material that has almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures

unsaturated

used of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond

valence electrons

electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom

vaporize

lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue

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