Identify four features of an illness that make it more likely to be stigmatised.
Visibility (is it apparent?), trajectory (not improving/worsening?), disruptiveness (inconvenient/dangerous?), aesthetics (ugly?), origin (own fault? Sign of moral delinquency?), communication (may be difficult).
Name two distinct ways in which social support influences health and well being of an individual.
Emotional - build self esteem, lower stress etc. Tangible - improve treatment adherence, access to information and services.
Give four ethical arguments in favour of denying treatment (e.g. bariatric surgery)
Contract argument: we have a contract with society to avoid self harm.
Scarcity of resources: there are finite resources that may be better allocated elsewhere
Benevolent paternalism: it is for the patient's own good not to receive treatment (e.g. so they can solve the problem themselves, learn a lesson)
Medical outcomes: giving treatment might not provide the best medical outcome for the patient.
Give four arguments against denying a patient treatment because of their past behaviour.
Double victimisation: patient has already been punished by society once.
Contribution: they may have paid taxes (esp. smokers)
Incentive to lie to doctors: in order to have treatment that would otherwise be refused
Slippery slope: where do we stop declining treatment?
Allocation based on needs: rather than perceived morality.
Describe the defining characteristics of an emotion-focused response to stress.
Targets the feelings of the individual suffering from stress, rather than practical steps towards solving the problem. For example, may turn to alcohol.