LITERATURE FINALS

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Calypso

(Greek mythology) the sea nymph who detained Odysseus for seven years

Odysseus

(main character) Son of Laertes and Anticleia, husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus. A cunning, shrewd and eloquent hero. Came up with the idea of the Trojan horse which led the Greeks to victory against Troy. "Man of many wiles".

Penelope

Wife of Odysseus and mother of Telemachus. She spends her days in the palace pining for the husband who left for Troy twenty years earlier and never returned. She outwits the suitors by telling them she is knitting a shawl and will not marry until her task is done, and then unwinds the knitting each night.

Teiresias

wise man; reveals that to Odysseus that: Poseidon hates him, he and his men shouldn't eat the cattle of Lord Helios because all of his men will die, he will go hom and regulate/kill the suitors, and when he is home he must take an oar inland and plant it in the ground and make a hekatomb to Poseidon

Circe

The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus's crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes' help, Odysseus resists Circe's powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year.

Greek Values

hospitality, respect for gods, heroism(courage in battle/leadership;oratory skills; loyalty and honor)

Lotus plant

If a person eats this substance, he will forget his home and never want to leave

Polyphemus

One of the Cyclopes (uncivilized one-eyed giants) whose island Odysseus comes to soon after leaving Troy. Polyphemus imprisons Odysseus and his crew and tries to eat them, but Odysseus blinds him through a clever ruse and manages to escape. In doing so, however, Odysseus angers Polyphemus's father, Poseidon.

Sirens

The creatures that attempted to lure Odysseus into the rocks with their song; Odysseus escapes by being tied to the mast and sealing his mens ears with beeswax

Scylla

(Greek mythology) a sea nymph transformed into a sea monster who lived on one side of a narrow strait; she devours six men, one for each of her heads

Charybdis

(Greek mythology) a ship-devouring whirlpool lying on the other side of a narrow strait from Scylla

Epic hero

the main character or protagonist in an epic that heroically larger than life, often the source and subject of a legend or a national hero

Odyssey themes

The power of cunning over strength; relationship between mortals and the gods; loyalty to family and friends; overcoming obstacles

dramatic irony

(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play

Telemachus

Odysseus's son. An infant when Odysseus left for Troy, he is about twenty at the beginning of the story. He is a natural obstacle to the suitors desperately courting his mother, but despite his courage and good heart, he initially lacks the poise and confidence to oppose them. Athena often assists him. He thinks Odysseus is a god when he first meets him.

swineherd and cowherd

the only servants who stay loyal to Odysseus; he promises them wives and cattle if they help defeat the suitors; they aid Telemachus in fighting the suitors

the maids

are disloyal to Odysseus by fraternizing with the suitors; Telemachus hangs them after they clean up the blood from the hall

Eurymachus

Suitor of Penelope's, second one killed, tries to convince Odysseus to let them go by saying that: Antinous is to blame, they will repay Odysseus for the food they ate, and Odysseus anger is just

soliloquy

in drama, a character speaks alone (or thinks they are alone) on stage to allow his/her thoughts and ideas to be conveyed to the audience

Mercutio

A kinsman to the Prince, and Romeo's close friend. Mercutio loves wordplay, especially sexual double entendres. He finds Romeo's romanticized ideas about love tiresome, and tries to convince Romeo to view love as a simple matter of sexual appetite. He is a foil for Romeo.

aside

a line spoken by an actor to the audience but not intended for others on the stage. An example is when Romeo says the following lines during the balconey scene: "Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this."

tragedy

drama in which the protagonist is overcome by some superior force or circumstance: main character dies. a character is responsible for his or her own downfall, serious actions end unhappily

Tybalt

A Capulet, Juliet's cousin on her mother's side. Vain, fashionable, supremely aware of courtesy and the lack of it, he becomes aggressive, violent, and quick to draw his sword when he feels his pride has been injured. He loathes Montagues; sends a letter to Romeo's father stating that he is angry with Romeo for crashing the Capulet's party

Benvolio

Montague's nephew, Romeo's cousin and thoughtful friend, he makes a genuine effort to defuse violent scenes in public places. He spends most of the play trying to help Romeo get his mind off Rosaline, even after Romeo has fallen in love with Juliet.

Lord Capulet

plans for Juliet to marry Paris in 2 years, The patriarch of the Capulet family, father of Juliet, husband of Lady Capulet, and enemy, for unexplained reasons, of Montague.

Lady Capulet

Juliet's mother, Capulet's wife. A woman who herself married young (by her own estimation she gave birth to Juliet at close to the age of fourteen), she is eager to see her daughter marry Paris. She is an ineffectual mother, relying on the Nurse for moral support.

Lord Montague

Romeo's father, the patriarch of the Montague clan and bitter enemy of Capulet. At the beginning of the play, he is chiefly concerned about Romeo's melancholy.

Lady Montague

Romeo's mother, Montague's wife. She dies of grief after Romeo is exiled from Verona.

The nurse

Juliet's nurse, the woman who breast-fed Juliet when she was a baby and has cared for Juliet her entire life. A vulgar, long-winded, and sentimental character, the Nurse provides comic relief with her frequently inappropriate remarks and speeches. But, until a disagreement near the play's end, the Nurse is Juliet's faithful confidante and loyal intermediary in Juliet's affair with Romeo.

Juliet

loves Romeo, kind, 13 , intelligent, obedient to her parents, married Romeo, was forced to marry Paris, took a potion to make it look like she was asleep, woke up to find Romeo dead, killed herself with Romeo's dagger, was the daughter of Lord and Lady Capulet

Romeo

The son and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. A young man of about sixteen; handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. He lives in the middle of a violent feud between his family and the Capulets, but he is not at all interested in violence. His only interest is love. At the beginning of the play he is madly in love with a woman named Rosaline, but the instant he lays eyes on Juliet, he falls in love with her and forgets Rosaline. He secretly marries Juliet, the daughter of his father's worst enemy; he happily takes abuse from Tybalt; and he would rather die than live without his beloved; also an affectionate and devoted friend to his cousin Benvolio, Mercutio, and Friar Lawrence.

Friar Laurence

He secretly marries the impassioned lovers in hopes that the union might eventually bring peace to Verona; makes a potion for Juliet to make it seem like she is dead; originally thinks Romeo changes his mind too quickly from Rosaline to Juliet; in the end, the one character who knows everything that happens and tells the Prince the truth

complication

An event or action in a work of literature that serves to intensify and develop the conflict; in Romeo and Juliet this would be Capulet arranging Juliet's marriage to Paris

paraphrasing

to express an idea in different wording in an effort to enhance communication and clarify meaning; it is important that you understand the meaning of the passage first

climax of Romeo and Juliet

Romeo kills Tybalt and is banished

Prince Escalus

The Prince of Verona. A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris. As the seat of political power in Verona, he is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs.

works cited

a complete listing of references cited parenthetically in the report and keyed on a separate page

thesis statement

a statement or sentence that states the purpose of a paper or essay

invocation

the act of invoking or calling upon a deity, spirit, etc., for aid, protection, inspiration, or the like; supplication. Used in the beginning of the Odyssey

alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds

asonance

repition of internal vowel sounds in near by words thet do not end the same; asleeeeep treeeee

consonance

the repetition of consonant sounds within or at the end of a word, e.g., east, west, best, test, trust, burst

meter

a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry

end rhyme

Rhyme that occurs at the end of two or more lines of poetry

masculine rhyme

Rhyme that falls on the stressed and concluding syllables of the rhyme-words. Examples include "keep" and "sleep," "glow" and "no," and "spell" and "impel." The norm, in which rhyme occurs on the final stressed syllables:
One, two,
Buckle my shoe

feminine rhyme

a rhyme of two syllables, one stressed and one unstressed, as "waken" and "forsaken" and "audition" and "rendition." rhyming double or triple or multiple extra-syllable endings: dying/flying, generate/venerate, salubrious/lugubrious.

internal rhyme

A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line

slant rhyme

rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.e. the words "stress" and "kiss"); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme

enjambment

describes a line of poetry in which the sense and grammatical construction continues on to the next line

prose

ordinary writing as distinguished from verse

rhyming couplets

pairs of rhyming lines

apostrophe

a technique by which a writer addresses an inanimate object, an idea, or a person who is either dead or absent.

personification

A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

allusion

a reference to another work of literature, person, or event

pun

a humorous play on words

refrain

a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song

oxymoron

conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')

plagiarism

taking credit for someone else's writing or ideas

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