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Year 10 Science

Physical Traits

The body's physical attributes

Behavioural Traits

refers to characteristics of the way one acts.

Predisposition

refers to an increased susceptibility to a certain type of disease.

Heredity

the passing of traits from parents to child

Traits

are notable features or qualities exhibited by a person.

Genes

made of DNA. Contain genetic instruction for the production of proteins.

Gene Pool

All the different genes and alleles a species have.

Allele

A different form of a gene.

Autosome

Non-sex Chromosome

Carrier

Does not show the expression of one copy of a recessive gene.

Chromosome

A structure formed of a very long piece of DNA, usually tightly wound together. Human chromosome 1 nearly has 3000 genes.

Co-Dominant

A heterozygote has a phenotype where two different alleles show both traits.

Codon

A series of three bases that acts as an instruction to add a particular amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain.

Diploid

When cells of a species contain pairs of chromosomes.

DNA

(deoxyribonucleic acid) the genetic instruction of all cellular organisms that determines biological characteristics.

Dominant Allele

The presence of a dominant allele means that its trait will be expressed. It is represented by a capital letter.

Gamete

A sex cell, sperm in males and ovum in females.

Gene

A length of the complex molecule DNA containing instructions for making a protein.

Genome

The entire genetic makeup of a species.

Genotype

The genetic makeup of a species.

Hapliod

When cells of a species have one copy of each chromosome.

Homozygote

Two copies of the same allele of a trait present in the genotype.

Heterozygote

Individual with one of each allele of a trait present in the genotype.

Karyotype

A picture created by staining, arranging and numbering chromosomes in pairs by size.

Meiosis

Gametes are formed from cell division.

Mutant

An individual that has a change in its DNA caused by mutation in a particular gene.

Mutation

A change in DNA sequence during translation.

Partial Dominance

The heterozygote has a phenotype halfway between that of the homozygotes.

Phenotype

Is made up of all the observable and measurable characteristics of an individual.

Point Mutation

The wrong nucleotide is inserted in a DNA sequence.

Punnett Square

Used to predict the outcomes of a cross. The top row has the possible genotypes of gametes from the one parent, and in the left column, the gametes from the other.

Recessive Allele

The trait coded by the recessive allele will not be seen unless there are no dominant alleles in the genotype. They are represented by a lower case letter.

Sex Chromosomes

The two X chromosomes (in females), or an X and a Y (in males)

Trait

A Unique Characteristic.

Transcription

In the presence of various enzymes a gene's DNA is unwound and the strands separated, and another type of nucleic acid, RNA is produced.

Translation

The base order of the RNA determines the order in which amino acids are added to a new DNA polypeptide chain.

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