World Civ 9H Some Test Multiple Choice Questions

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who dominated the economic and political life of medieval towns?

merchant guilds

how did new ways of doing business reshape medieval society?

the system of feudalism broke down and a middle class emerged

why did some religious people want to reform the church during medieval times?

its very success had brought problems

what describes a nature of a guild

an association of people who worked in the same occupation

increased food population during the high middle ages caused .....

the population of europe to double

who assumed the role of king with anglo-saxon kind edward died in 1066

edward's brother-in-law Harold

how did the battle of hastings change the course of english history?

the Normans took control of england

during the high middle ages, what was one way the english monarchs strengthened the governement

they organized a government bureaucracy

for what purpose did english kings use the domesday book

to build an efficient system of tax collection

what did the decisions of the english royal courts of justice create?

common law

in 1215, english nobles forced king john to sign the magna carta, a document that

stated that the king must obey the law

which of the following created a need for education in europe during the high middle ages?

rulers needed government officials who could read and write

which most accurately describes women's role in medieval society?

women were not allowed to attend the universities

how did medieval cathedrals help to educate an illiterate public?

the featured sculptures and stained glass that portrayed biblical stories

canon law applied to

religious teachings

the stories of medieval writes such as dante and chaucer were important because....

they gave insight into medieval life and showed the impotence of the church

some people reacted to the plague by

turning to magic and witchcraft

which of the following was a cause of the crusades?

people wanted to free the holy land from turkish control

which of the following was a result of the crusades?

trade between europe and the east increased

what did the devastation caused by the bubonic plague contribute to?

the disruption and collapse of medieval society

which of the following was the central issue of the Hundred years' war?

the throne of france

what was the most important effect of the Hundred Years' war?

it caused the development of national identities in england and france.

sacred rituals of the catholic church are called _________ and they are essential for salvation

sacraments

holy war

crusade

a tax the church required christians to pay

tithe

peasant women who led french troops to victory in the hundred years' war

joan of arc

example of medieval literature

a divine comedy by dante

allowed cathedrals to have higher building walls, leaving space for stained-glass windows

flying buttresses

during the hundred years' war, the english had the advantage of the _____ and in response the french developed the ____

longbow and cannon

christian scholar who used reason to examine Christian teaching

thomas aquinas

a method of study that uses reason to support christian beliefs

scholasticism

at the council of clermont, ___ gave a speech that begin the crusades

urban II

everyday language of ordinary people is called the

vernacular

worldly or nonreligious

secular

church action that excommunicated an entire town or region

interdiction

this didn't' result from the repeated invasions of the germanic tribes that led to the fall of the roman empire...

the establishment of a common language

to ensure a supply of educated officials, charlemagne

set up a palace school

the vikings were fierce warriors, as well as

traders and explorers

feudalism evolved in response to a need for

protection

what were the forces holding feudal society together?

a set of mutual social obligations and the teachings of the church

in exchange for land, __________ pledged service to a greater lord

vassals

a lord granted a vassal his ___, or estate

fief

________could no lead the manor without permission

peasants

a ______included one or more villages and the surrounding lands

manor

____is the king of the franks who conquered gaul in 486 and converted to christianity

clovis

_____ were the officials sent by Charlemagne to manage his empire

missi dominici

"from aachen I shale rule my empire."

charlemagne

"my first loyalty is to my liege lord."

a vassal

"let me sing you a song, my lady, praising your virtues."

troubadour

"my master is teaching me the art of sword making."

apprentice

"it is my duty to be brave, loyal, and true."

knight

the code of laws hat were collected by the great byzantine emperor that had an impact on western law codes was called the

justinian codes

great church that was a landmark of the byzantine capital city

hagia sophia

in the byzantine empire, the emperor was an __________ that is he was a sole ruler with complete authority

autocrat

the highest church official in the byzantine empire was called a

patriarch

in the eastern orthodox religion, _____ or holy images of jesus, mary, or church saints, were used by people in their prayers

icons

the roman empire ended in the year

476 A.D.

the byzantine empire ended in the year

1453 A.D.

unlike roman catholics, byzantine clergy..

could marry

to muslims, the quran is

the final authority on all matters

muslim trade was

extensive

the law code drawn up by islamic scholars was known as the

sharia

many conquered peoples converted to islam because

it emphasized the equality of all believers

the majority branch within islam has been the

sunnis

after muhammed moved to yathrib, it was named

medina

islam considers muhammed to be a

prophet

a _____ is a muslim house of worship

mosque

the supreme god of islam is called

allah

the slender towers from which the muezzin calls the faithful to the prayer are known as

minarets

islam means

submission

shiites believe that the caliph should be an

ancestor of muhammed

pillar of faith 1

profession of creed (shahada) ...one god, muhammed is messenger of god

pillar of faith 2

prayer (salat) muslims pray towards mecca 5X per day

pillar of faith 3

giving to the poor (zakat)

pillar of faith 4

fasting (siyam) fast from dawn to dusk during ramadan

pillar of faith 5

pilgrimage (hajj) journey to mecca once in your lifetime

the best expression of islamic art is found in its

mosques

arab philosophers tried to harmonize greek ideas about reason with

religion

_____ is an intricate design of curved lines that suggests floral shapes

arabesque

muslims made many contributions in medicine except

they didn't study smallpox. cataracts, and performed some organ transplants

one thousand and one nights was written during the golden age given us

ali baba and the forty thieves, and also aladdin and his magic lamp

suleiman was called the

magnificent

when the ottomans conquered people they

treated the people kindly

majority of muslims (85-90%)

sunni

tend to be more powerful politically

sunni

respected for their piety and miraculous powers

sufi

tend to be poorer

shiite

extreme minority of muslims; they fast and meditate

sufi

believed the caliph should be an elected pious leader

sunni

believed the caliph should be a descendant of muhammad

shiite

this group makes up the minority of muslims (10-15%)

shiite

population mostly in iraq is mostly from this branch of islam..

shiite

how were the byzantines heirs to the roman empire?

Justinian was determined to relive the grandeur of ancient Rome.
He launched a program to beautify constantinople.(hagia sophia)
He set up a comission to collect, revise, and organize laws of ancient rome.
^^^This resulted in Justinian's Code~included laws passed by roman assemblies, or decreed by roman emperors

major books of islam

Quran (means recitation)

Sharia-law code that interprets Quran (final matters on all subjects)

spiritual leaders of islam

Allah, Muhammed, jesus, iman (priest)

How did Islam differ from previous religious beliefs?

MONOTHEISTIC!!!!!! They saw Jesus as a prophet, and prophets spread the word of ALLAH.
Muhammed was the last prophet...all Muslims are required to pilgram to Mecca.

How did the world begin? (islam)

"night a mantle.." "ordained the world for work.." "built 7 might heavens..." "sent down abundant water from the clouds, bringing grain, plants, and gardens

View of god (Islam)

wise and all knowing
he forgives sins
compassionate and merciful
the king of judgement day
guides you to the right path
YOU SHOULD FEAR HIM, AND HE'S STERN IN RETRIBUTION

view of humankind? (islam)

allah may forgive your past...AND YOUR FUTURE SINS
he will prefect his goodness to you (allah)
the human are INNOCENT, and will stay that way if you FOLLOW THE RIGHT PATH

Salvation? (islam)

journey to mecca once during your life
loyalty to allah
following the 5 pillars (Shahada, salat, zakat, siyam, hajj)
judgement day?

afterlife?

heaven and hell..on judgement day, you'll journey to one of those places

oasis

PEOPLE MEET THERE

bedouins

SPREAD ISLAM...normadic herders

.mecca

muhammed was born here

kaaba

muslims pray towards it (5X per day)
BUILT BY ABRAHAM

khadija

wife of Muhammed
ENCOURAGED MUHAMMED TO GO ON HIS "FOLLOWING"

gabriel

messenger
TOLD MUHAMMED THERE WAS ONE GOD

Hijra

journey spanning from mecca to yathrib

medina

city of the prophet
622-MUHAMMED ARRIVED

Jihad

effort, or struggle in god's service

arabic

MUSLIMS WERE UNITED BY IT

QURAN WAS TRANSLATED INTO ARABIC, TO PRESERVE THE MEANING IN THE QURAN

QURAN

READ IN ITS MOST SACRED FROM IN ARABIC

sharia

regulates life
(applies to daily life)

achievements of muslim world

muslim scholars translated the works of the greek philosophers

treated cataracts

required doctors to take an exam before practicing medicine

muslim civilization absorbed and blended many cultures/traditions

ottoman empire significant?

Osman built the small state...his successors expanded it by buying land, and conquering everyone they could

used gunpowder...also replaced archers on horseback with musket-carrying soldiers

suleiman united the ottoman empire...suleiman the magnificent was a tribute to "the splendor of his court" and his cultural achievemnts

origins of the modern middle east?

traced back to WW1 decisions by the victorious allies, who split up the ottoman empire

britain and france paid little attention to tribal or ethnic or religious differences that stand today!!

what are the main issues in the arab-israeli conflict?

the british mandated palestine in present-day israel, ordain, west bank, and the gaza strip

west of the jordan river, the issue of jewish homeland played out over the next 2 decades....arab leaders opposed the creation of a new jewish state in palestine, where the population WAS ARAB

PALESTINE WANTS THE DESTRUCTION OF ISRAEL..THEY FEEL JEWISH PEOPLE SHOULDN'T BE GRANTED THEIR OWN HOMELAND (JR AND MS)

factors that have led to uprisings in the middle east...

egypt and tunisia started the arab spring...other countries followed

syria..hospital patients are whipped so government officials get info from them

iran...iran HATES israel...we have ties with israel..which is why iran hates us..NUCLEAR CAPABILITY

Afghanistan..major drug exporting company..opium (heroine) ...POVERTY 36% UNDER LINE....TALIBAN AND AL QUEADA

israel and palestine fight to see who gets what land..REFUGEE PROBLEM

issues of concern for muslim women...

they were the hijab..seen as oppressive and as a symbol of a Muslim woman's subservience to men

women are not equal to men in terms of inheritance

women are not qualified to be qadis..if so (not over criminal/divorce issues..which is a qadi's workload)

certain ME countries are concern to the states...

IRAN...NUCLEAR CAPABILITIES

we have ties with israel..we watch and protect them...IRAN HATES ISRAEL..so that gives reason for iran to hate us

IRAQ..full blown civil war could erupt between the sunnis and the shiites..and we could become caught in the middle of it

how did foreign invasions lead to feudalism?

emperors were to weak to maintain law and order.....people needed to protect themselves and their homes, and their lands....in response for PROTECTION..FEUDALISM CAME ABOUT...WHERE POWERFUL LORDS DIVIDED THEIR LANDHOLDINGS TO LESSER LORDS!

how did feudal obligations organize the social structure in medieval society?

lords + vassals..established by custom and tradition and by an exchange of pledges (feudal contract)..granted fiefs

the fiefs included peasants to work the land

as part of the feudal contract...THE LORD PROMISED TO PROTECT HIS VASSAL..in return, the vassal pledged loyalty to the lord ...40 days of MILITARY SERVICE EACH YEAR... AND ...ALSO ADVICE

kings + lords...lords gave loyalty and food to the kings...and kings provided them w/ a large fief

vassals and knights.....knights provided vassals with protection and entertainment...in return vassals provided training, weapons, and gear

pesants and knights....peasants supplied food and maintenance, and knights defended them

in what ways did the church dominate life in the middle ages?

church goers were dedicated to the worship of God..they believed all people who were sinners would suffer eternally..the only way to avoid hell would be to believed in Christ and partake in the sacraments....AND SINCE THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH ADMINISTERED SACRAMENTS..IT HAD ABSOLUTE POWER ON ALL RELIGIOUS MATTERS

developed canon law...ANYONE WHO DISOBEYED CHUCH LAW COULD BE EXCOMMUNICATED (NOT RECEIVE AND SACRAMENTS!!)

THE STRONGEST RULER WHO OPPOSED THE CHURCH COULD FACE AN INTERDICT, BEING OPPOSED FOR CHRISTIAN BURIAL AND MOST SACRAMENTS

what was daily life like in the middle ages?

peasants..HARSH LIFE...simple diet of black bread w/ veggies....never ate meat..unless hunted it on their manor (they could be punished)..worked according to the season..and took holidays off

KNIGHTS..7 years old, send away to a local lord's castle...training difficult and strict..LAZINESS was punished with blows or beatings

entertainment..TOURNAMENTS...CONTESTS OF FIGHTING SKILL

LORDS..rival lords constantly battled for power..
.protected his vassal....managed his fiefs..

technological advancements drove economic, military, and political change in the middle ages how..?

peasants adapted new farming technologies that made their fields more productive.. (iron plows--> dug deep into heavy soil) (horses instead of oxen..faster mode, which increased field size and planted more crops..) (windmill...grind peasant's grain into flour)

3 field system...one field grain, one field legumes, and third fallow (empty)...the new method left only 1/3 of the land unplanted

WITH MORE FOOD NOW AVAILABLE..THE POPULATION GREW!!!!!!!!

how did the plague affect all aspects of medieval society?

brought terror...some people turned to magic and witchcraft...

committed suicide...as they knew they would die soon anyway

saw the plague as god's punishment ..christians blamed jews for the plague.

worker and employers died, production declined ..SURVIVORS DEMANDED HIGHER WAGES

church was unable to provide leadership..reformers elected their own pope

bitter revolts, in england, germany, and france..FEAR OF THE PLAGUE

the franks

germanic tribes who carved western europe into a small kingdom..conquered gaul...ELECTED KINGS TO LEAD THEM INTO WAR

magyars

overran eastern europe..CHARLEMANGE'S HEIRD NEW CHALLENGE WAS THE MAGYARS

feudal contract

relationship between lords and vassals..established by tradition, custom, and pledges

FEDUAL SYSTEM

KINGS
LORDS
VASSALS
KNIGHTS
PEASANTS/SERFS

VASSAL

lesser kid..pledged service to the greater lord

stained glass

created a play of light
used color light
depicted biblical or religious scenes

jury system

Henry II..men to speak the truth..composed of 12 peeps

iran

Iran - Iran and Iraq hate each other because Iraq-Iran war, started
with Saddam Hussein and Islam-Iranian revolution, Ahmadinejad is
leader, doesn't believe in the holocaust, wants to blow Israel off the
map, threats of nuclear weapons which is being closely watched by
US, religious government, mostly Shiites about 90% to 95%,

friar

Francis of assisi set up orders of friars, who were monks who did not live in isolated monasteries but traveled around europe's growing towns PREACHING TO THE POOR

Francis of assisi

set up orders of friars...preached gospel and taught by example....

simony

the selling of church offices

papal supremacy

authority over all secular leaders (POPES CLAIMED PAPAL SUPREMACY)

Benedictine rule

3 VOWS... OBEDIENCE TO THE ABBOTT, POVERTY, AND PURITY

Benedict

monk who organized the monastery of monte cassino in southern italy..DREW UP A SET OF RULES!!

dante-DIVINE COMEDY

poem takes reader on journey into hell and
purgatory, describes vision of heaven, summarizes Christian ethics,
highlights key idea in Christianity that people's action in life will
determine fate in afterlife

CANTERBURY TALES

BY CHAUCER... band of English pilgrims traveling
to a tomb, uses word portraits to sketch range of characters, each
character tells a story, funny, romantic, etc. each adds to picture of
medieval life

MEDIEVAL architecture

Architecture—Cathedrals (Flying Buttresses, Vaulted Arches) -
reflected Roman influences, looked like fortresses, thick walls and
towers, roof was a barrel vault or long tunnel of stone covering main
part of structure, interior was dark and gloomy due to no windows,
in 1140, new type of architecture developed, Gothic style, key

feature was flying buttresses which were stone supports that stood
outside the church, allowed builders to construct higher walls, leave
space for stained-glass windows

how did mongols conquer and rule a huge empire?

Genghis Khan built huge empire, united warring tribes, imposed strict
military discipline, demanded absolute loyalty, had most skilled horsemen
in the world, conquered Asian steppe lands with ease, turned on China
faced with problem of walled cities, used cannons and other new weapons
to conquer parts of China, heirs continued to expand Mongol empire,
dominated much of Asia, not oppressive rulers, allowed conquered
people to live as they had before with payment to the Mongols, sons and
grandsons of Genghis Khan established peace and order within domains,
period of Mongol Peace, ECONOMIC GROWTH BY CONTROLLING SILK ROAD!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

how did the ming rule after the collapse of the mongol dynasty? (yuan dynasty)

Rulers sought to reassert Chinese greatness after years of foreign rule,
restored civil service system, Confucian learning, very productive, plains of
eastern China supported population of more than 100 million, produced
huge rice crops, better methods of fertilizing improved farming, made
trade easier, new technologies, revival of art and literature, own styles of
landscape painting, new forms of literature started emerging

HOW DID FEUDALISM DEVELOP IN JAPAN?

Rival clans battled for control of countryside, everyone formed bands loyal
to them rather than to the central government, Japan evolved a feudal
system out of this non-loyalty to the central government

mongol empire

empire built first by Genghis Khan and then by his
sons and grandsons, conquered most of Asia including walled cities
of China, very successful empire, period of Mongol Peace, economic
growth because of control of silk road

Genghis khan

born as Temujin, later united warring Mongol
tribes into one vast empire and was renamed Genghis Khan which
means WORLD EMPEROR

mongol peace

between 1200's and 1300's, peace and order within
domains established, political stability, economic growth, control of
silk road led to flourishing trade

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